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Qualitative source apportionment and long-range transport of air pollutants

Qualitative source apportionment and long-range transport of air pollutants

J. A. Saju1,2*, Q. H. Bari2, S. B. Nayan2, M. M. Rahman2

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Urban areas of Bangladesh are under threat due to the extensiveness of air pollution.
  • Source identification of air pollutants is a crucial element of controlling the pollution.
  • Qualitative source apportionment and long-range transport of air pollutants are conducted.
  • Anthropogenic sources are highly responsible for polluting the air of Khulna
  • Trajectory path reveals the origins of air pollutants traveled over Khulna city.

ABSTRACT

Air pollution is a great concern in urban areas of Bangladesh because of the emissions from various anthropogenic sources. Identification of sources of respective air pollutants is needed to control the affluence of pollution. The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible sources which are polluting the airshed of Khulna city. This study performed qualitative source apportionment and investigated the long-range transport of air pollutants at different locations of the city. Nine locations were selected to investigate the sources of pollutants through observation-identification method. Vehicle emission was found as a dominant source of air pollutants at almost all the observed locations. Average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was found as 0.66 which varied from 0.38 to 0.88 and average PM1.0 /PM10 was found as 0.35 varied from 0.16 to 0.44. These ratios revealed the dominancy of fine particles as on average 66% of PM2.5 and 35% of PM1.0 contributed to the total concentration of PM10. The extensive aspect of fine particles revealed the greater contribution of anthropogenic sources to the air of Khulna city as around 66% of fine particles found to be contributed to the concentration of PM10. This study also investigated the long-range transport of air pollutants for nine monitoring locations in the city. From the backward trajectory analysis, it was concluded that trajectories followed two paths; one is west Bengal path and another is the Bay of Bengal path. The higher concentration of all air pollutants was found when the trajectories followed the west Bengal path which indicated the contribution of industrial activities in neighboring India, China and Bhutan to the concentrations of air pollutants behind the perimeter of Bangladesh.

© 2021 The Authors. Published by Ababil Publishers.

To cite this article: Saju JA, Bari QH, Nayan SB, Rahman MM. Qualitative source apportionment and long-range transport of air pollutants. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2021;12:2-10.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr12-2/

© 2021 The Authors. Licensee Ababil Publishers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

A study on livelihood of the mongers and cognition of street food safety under Covid-19 pandemic situation in Dhaka city

A study on livelihood of the mongers and cognition of street food safety under Covid-19 pandemic situation in Dhaka city

M. Mazumder*, A. Amin, R.K. Paul, R.H. Riyad

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Structured interviews were carried out with many street food consumers.
  • Consumers’ perception on street food quality, safety and hygiene was observed.
  • Mongers can’t use fresh water to prepare food.
  • Hand washing facilities were unavailable in food processing and distribution.
  • Food safety and hygiene are not the supreme concerns for mongers and consumers.

ABSTRACT

The practices and perceptions of food quality, food safety and hygiene among street food mongers and their customer’s were investigated in Covid-19 pandemic situation. Seven areas were chosen in Dhaka city to collect required information. Qualitative data was collected for few months (questionnaire survey) in some places in Dhaka. Informal and formal interviews were conducted with many street food mongers and their staffs. The main issues were related to food safety practices and perceptions, and monger customer interactions in pandemic situation. Structured interviews were carried out with 40 street food consumers about their perceptions and attitudes towards street food quality, food safety and hygiene. This study observed that most mongers were male. Mongers can’t use fresh water to prepare food. Hand washing facilities are unavailable for mongers during food processing and also distribution system. Finally, this study obtained that food safety and hygiene are not the supreme concerns for mongers and consumers in Covid-19 pandemic situation.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Mazumder M, Amin A, Paul RK, Riyad RH. A study on livelihood of the mongers and cognition of street food safety under Covid-19 pandemic situation in Dhaka city. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2020;11:25-29.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr11-5/

A comparative study on compressive strength of SCC between stone chips and brick chips as coarse aggregate

A comparative study on compressive strength of SCC between stone chips and brick chips as coarse aggregate

M. A. Alam*, M. R. Islam, R. A. Rimi, M. S. Hossain, M. M. Rana

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Compressive strength of SCC made with stone chips and brick chips as coarse aggregate is studied.
  • Compressive strength of SCC for different mixed ratios at different ages of concrete is obtained.
  • Average slump flow value of SCC made with stone chips is higher than brick chips.
  • Compressive strength of SCC made with stone chips is higher than brick chips.
  • Stone chips are highly recommended to use as coarse aggregate in SCC.

ABSTRACT

The self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a high-performance concrete in which the utilization of vibration or compaction no more required. The aim of this study is to investigate the compressive strength of SCC obtained from stone chips and brick chips as coarse aggregate and find out which aggregate is better in compressive strength. For experimental setup, two types of coarse aggregates are used in this study; stone chips and brick chips. Sylhet sand is used as fine aggregate. Water cement ratio 0.4% and polycarboxylic ether 1% as super plasticizer are used by weight of cement. Moreover, two types of mix ratios namely 1:1:2 and 1:2:4 are used by volume. All cylindrical specimens (Diameter = 100 mm and height = 200 mm) are tested at the age of 7, 14 and 28 days. It is observed that the slump flow value and the compressive strength of SCC made with stone chips are higher than that of brick chips as coarse aggregate. Based on the tested results, stone chips are highly recommended to use as coarse aggregate in SCC as it provides better compressive strength.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Alam MA, Islam MR, Rimi RA, Hossain MS, Rana MM. A comparative study on compressive strength of SCC between stone chips and brick chips as coarse aggregate. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2020;11:21-24.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr11-4/

Mechanical properties and direct tensile strength of waste toner foamed concrete

Mechanical properties and direct tensile strength of waste toner foamed concrete

N. M. Alkurdi*, F. A. Mohammad, H. A. Klalib

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Cement content effect on the compressive strength of FC is examined.
  • Effect of density and additives on FC mechanical properties is investigated.
  • A direct tensile test to determine the tensile strength of FC is proposed.
  • Direct tensile strength is compared with the indirect ones.
  • Modulus of elasticity and stress-strain relationship of FC is obtained.

ABSTRACT

The use of Foamed Concrete (FC) in structural elements reduces dead loads on structures and foundations, contributes to cost reduction and energy-efficient construction by reduces the structural elements size, labour and energy during transportation and construction stages. To investigate the mechanical properties of FC including compressive, tensile and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity and the stress-strain relationship, 256 specimens classified into four different densities (1200, 1400, 1600 and 1800 kg/m3) were tested. For each concrete density, four mixes were designed including control mix and three different additives; silica fume, metakaolin and waste toner. The waste toner additive was collected from used printer cartridges. The experimental program was considered to introduce a modified direct tensile test, where splitting and flexural tests were conducted to confirm its reliability. The obtained results were quite converged, which illustrated that the tensile strength determined by the proposed model was lower than that of the Brazilian and flexural tests. The waste toner additive improved the FC compressive and tensile strengths by more than 30%. These results are promising and point to the significant potential of developing an eco-friendly lightweight concrete by replacement a percentage of cement with waste toner.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Alkurdi NM, Mohammad FA, Klalib HA. Mechanical properties and direct tensile strength of waste toner foamed concrete. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2020;11:10-20.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr11-3/

Performance of biochar prepared from municipal solid waste for removal of methylene blue dye

Performance of biochar prepared from municipal solid waste for removal of methylene blue dye

M. Jadhav1*, S. Kadam2

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Ample quantity of color wastewater produced due to application of dyes.
  • Biochar is an activated carbon prepared from municipal solid waste.
  • Biochar is a cost effective adsorbent used for removal of dyes from wastewater.
  • Adsorption isotherm modeling was done using various models.
  • Adsorption is proved to be the most effective method of dye removal.

ABSTRACT

Dye is a substance used to impart color to textiles, papers, leathers, foods, plastics and cosmetics. Plenty of color wastewater is produced due to application of dyes. This wastewater discharged from these industries poses certain hazards and environmental problems. The objective of this study is to remove methylene blue (MB) dye by biochar (activated carbon) prepared from municipal solid waste. Adsorption of MB dye was performed by using both batch as well as fixed bed column study. The effect of various parameters viz. adsorbent dose, pH, stirring rate, dye concentration and contact time on adsorption of MB dye was studied in batch mode and that of dye concentration; pH and flow rate was studied in fixed bed column mode. Batch study concluded that increase in adsorbent dose increases the removal efficiency of MB dye due to increase in available surface area for adsorption, also increase in initial concentration of dye decreases the removal efficiency. The MB dye adsorption was also affected by pH and other process parameters. Maximum removal efficiency was observed at dose of 400 mg (95.2%), with initial dye concentration 50 mg/l (90%) at pH value 4 (22.94%) with 2 hours (98.79%) of contact time at 120 rpm (99.82%). Adsorption isotherm modeling was done using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Redlich Peterson models, where the experimental data was better fitted to the Redlich Peterson model than other three models. Redlich Peterson model showed the best fit with coefficient of determination (R2 = 1) equal to unity. The data of batch study was used for continuous fixed bed column study. This study concluded that at low flow rate and low dye concentration maximum removal of dye was observed. pH played a vital role in removal efficiency of MB dye and maximum removal was observed at pH = 7.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Jadhav M, Kadam S. Performance of biochar prepared from municipal solid waste for removal of methylene blue dye. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2020;11:2-9.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr11-2/

Energy dissipation-based arc-length method for nonlinear response prediction

Energy dissipation-based arc-length method for nonlinear response prediction  

Md. Alhaz Uddin

The nonlinearity induced by the large deformation or material nonlinearity or both responses is manifested in the form of nonlinear load-deflection curves. These curves can have a descending branch after attaining the peak load due to the strain-softening behaviour of materials in its inelastic range. The solution of this typical nonlinear finite element problem is quite challenging and a load control-based technique cannot trace the descending branch of the load-deflection curve. In order to overcome this problem, a displacement control-based technique may be used; however, this will also fail if the load-deflection curve has a snap-back response. In this situation, an arc-length based solution technique seems to be the only possible option…

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Uddin MA. Energy dissipation-based arc-length method for nonlinear response prediction. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2020;11:1.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr11-1/

Assessment of some mechanical properties of concrete by partial replacement of cement with cow bone powder

Assessment of some mechanical properties of concrete by partial replacement of cement with cow bone powder

A.I. Quadri*, A.T. Wasiu

HIGHLIGHTS

  • The cow bone powder was pulverized with a ball milling machine.
  • Some percentage replacement of cement with cow bone powder was done.
  • Mineralogical compositions of cow bone and cement were determined.
  • Compressive test and other mechanical tests were conducted.
  • Viability of percentage replacement of cement was determined as 7.5%.

ABSTRACT

Cement is an integral material for making concrete which has gained some feet in the construction industry over the past decades. Acquiring cement can be expensive; moreover, cement releases so much energy and CO2 that causes depletion of the ozone layer. This research, therefore, presents the use of cow bone powder as viable waste and economically effective material for partial replacement of cement in concrete. Series of tests such as dry and wet density test, compressive strength test, slump test, XRF test on cow bone powder, and chemical composition of cement & bone powder were conducted to determine the applicability and influence of cow bone powder on concrete strength. Partial replacement of cement with cow bone powder from 0 to 20% with 2.5% step was performed. The result of the XRF test done on cow bone powder shows that virtually all constituents compound contained in cement are also present in bone powder but in varying proportions. On an average, the compressive strength was 12.33 N/mm2 for the controlled sample. The results obtained showed an increase in the strength of concrete when cement is partially replaced by cow bone powder with different curing ages. The highest average compressive strength recorded at 28 days when cement was partially replaced by cow bone powder was at 7.5% (15.42 N/mm2). This was adjudged the best fit for viable partial replacement of cement in concrete.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Quadri AI, Wasiu AT. Assessment of some mechanical properties of concrete by partial replacement of cement with cow bone powder. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2020;10:10-18.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr10-3/

Stabilization of lateritic soil with blast furnace slag

Stabilization of lateritic soil with blast furnace slag  

M.A. Mojeed1, R.A. Taiwo2,*, A.H. Adegoke3

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Lateritic soil is usually poorly graded and needs to be stabilized.
  • Samples were mixed with blast furnace slag with varying percentages of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%.
  • Samples were tested for compaction, undrained compressive & shear strength, and CBR.
  • The undrained compressive strength improves at 8% and 2% addition of blast furnace slag to samples.
  • Blast furnace slag is a good soil stabilizer.

ABSTRACT

Lateritic soil is a group of extremely weathered soil. The soil is formed by the concentration of hydrated oxides of iron and aluminum. Most of the lateritic soil has considerable high compaction densities. However, under moisture conditions and adverse traffic, the lateritic soil performs poorly. Thus, such behavior of soil can lead to great damage of engineered structures and therefore it is important to treat the soil in order to be useful for engineering purposes. The aim of this research is to evaluate the engineering properties of lateritic soil that is stabilized with blast furnace slag. The lateritic soil was collected from a proposed site for the construction of an indoor sports hall at the Obanla campus of the Federal University of Technology, Akure located in the western part of Nigeria. Two samples (Samples A and B) were collected at depth 0.7 -1 m from different locations. The samples were mixed with blast furnace slag with varying percentages of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% and were tested for compaction, undrained compressive & shear strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR). All tests were performed in accordance to the British Standards (BS 1377). The interpretation of the results shows that Sample A gives optimum engineering performance in terms of Atterberg limit, compaction and CBR when 6% of the blast furnace is added to it. Furthermore, Sample B gives optimum engineering properties (in terms of Atterberg limit, compaction and CBR) when 8% of blast furnace slag is added to it. However, the undrained compressive strength improves at 8% and 2% addition of blast furnace slag to Samples A and B respectively.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Mojeed MA, Taiwo RA, Adegoke AH. Stabilization of lateritic soil with blast furnace slag. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2020;10:4-9.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr10-2/

Challenges of waste management in densely populated countries under COVID-19 pandemic

Challenges of waste management in densely populated countries under COVID-19 pandemic  

S. Shams

Solid waste management (SWM) has been a major concern in developing countries due to lack of adequate funding, manpower and equipment. Economic development and urbanization, improved lifestyle, and life expectancy of residents of city play a key role in increasing the quantity, complexity, and nature of municipal solid waste [1]. The issues of waste management are further challenging with widespread transmission of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) particularly in densely populated countries like Brazil, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Mexico and, Indonesia where the number of cases is increasing at an alarming rate. Amidst this global pandemic, additional volume of hazardous waste (resulting from PPEs like – hand gloves, face masks, apron, tissues) mixed with solid waste possesses a serious health threat to the waste pickers/workers…

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Shams S. Challenges of waste management in densely populated countries under COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2020;10:1-3.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr10-1/