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Study on hospital waste management in six selected hospitals in Khulna city

Study on hospital waste management in six selected hospitals in Khulna city

S. M. Moniruzzaman*, Sk. Md. Imdadul Islam, Md. Nahid Hasan, Imran Khan Apu

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Present hospital waste management system of Khulna city was studied.
  • Waste generation rate was determined by survey from six selected hospitals.
  • Hospital wastes were classified according to their characteristics.
  • Role of different organizations in hospital waste management was observed.
  • A new flow path is proposed for improving the management system of hospital waste.

ABSTRACT

Generally, hospital wastes are highly harmful and infectious in nature. Management of hospital waste is a crucial need for most of the cities in the world. In Khulna city of Bangladesh hospital waste management (HWM)   system had been focused on collection and dumping only. The present improper management of hospital waste in Khulna city may play a vital role for contamination of nearby communities and spread the occurrence of skin diseases, asthma, diarrhea, allergy, eye irritation, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the existing HWM system and determine the hospital generation rate according to different categories in Khulna city. The study was carried out in six hospitals that produce major portion of medical waste in the city. For this reason, a questionnaire survey was conducted to observe the existing management system, generation rate and type from the hospital authority. Field survey was conducted to categorize and measure the generated waste by weight machine directly to compare with the data from questionnaire survey. The study revealed that the average generation rate of different categories of hospital waste such as general waste, anatomic waste, pathological waste, chemical waste, pharmaceutical waste, infectious waste, sharp waste and liquid waste were 0.138, 0.0028, 0.0091, 0.0036, 0.0009, 0.0334, 0.036 and 0.0205 kg/day/bed, respectively. The study showed that there was no radioactive waste in the selected hospitals of Khulna. Improper segregation, lack of treatment, consciousness and financial support are liable for inappropriate management. Finally, a management system was proposed including proper segregation and storage by selected colored container, proper collection, safe transportation, proper treatment and disposal for improving existing system. Regular monitoring and assessment of hospital waste by hospital and city authority will also be needed for a safe and healthy environment.

© 2018 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Moniruzzaman SM, Islam SMI, Hasan MN, Apu IK. Study on hospital waste management in six selected hospitals in Khulna city. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2018;7:18-23.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr7-4/

Roadside urination and public sanitation facilities in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Roadside urination and public sanitation facilities in Dhaka, Bangladesh

M. M. Hasan*, K. Basak, K. Rayhan

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Roadside urination is a very common incident that impacts on both environment and public health.
  • A randomized face to face field survey was conducted at different spots.
  • Rickshaw puller is the main group who urinate at roadside.
  • People are necessitated to urinate at roadside due to insufficiency of public sanitation facilities.
  • Roadside urination is one of the crucial barriers for improving the sanitation situation of the city.

ABSTRACT

Mass migration, uncontrolled population growths, unplanned urbanization and lack of proper sanitation facilities (i.e. public/mobile toilets) are accelerating roadside urination in Dhaka city which impacts on society, environment and public health. As such this research focused very first time on this unhygienic but frequent incident of the city. Randomized face to face field survey was conducted at different roadside urination spots and public toilet locations in Dhaka South City Corporation (DSCC). Four different questionnaire forms were prepared to cover four different groups of people. The survey covered total 364 people. Among ten different professions of urinators rickshaw puller was the main group who urinate at roadside. Majority percentages (80%) of people were found aware of this unacceptable practice but they were bound to urinate at roadside due to intense insufficiency of public sanitation facilities. Lack of law enforcement was also accountable for remaining this problem. Nearly half of the users were unsatisfied about the hygienic conditions of the existing public toilets. More than 70% of people relied on the effectiveness of privatization of this sector. The findings revealed that the frequent incident of roadside urination is one of the major barriers for improving overall sanitation practice of the city.

© 2018 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Hasan MM, Basak K, Rayhan K. Roadside urination and public sanitation facilities in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2018;7:9-17.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr7-3/

Analysis of road safety related data from a key section of a highway in Bangladesh

Analysis of road safety related data from a key section of a highway in Bangladesh

S.M.S. Mahmud1,2,*, Luis Ferreira1, M.S. Hoque3, A. Tavassoli1, N. Islam3

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Road safety problems of Jamuna Bridge and its approach roads are investigated.
  • Traffic operational and behavioural characteristics are analyzed.
  • Hazardous Road Locations (HRL) are identified.
  • Measures for improving the likelihood of accidents are suggested.
  • Application of surrogate safety measures as an alternative analysis approach is proposed.

ABSTRACT

According to recent statistics, more than 150 accidents and 440 casualties are happening per year on the 39 km road section of Jamuna Bridge and its approach roads, a major highway section in Bangladesh. Such statistics demand special attention for analysis, investigation, and treatment. This study presents the results of a comprehensive study on the safety problems of that highway section. The study used a special dataset recorded by the road operator for accident analysis and characteristics evaluation. Different aspects of traffic operational and behavioural characteristics are also discussed using onsite observational survey and video analysis. The analysis shows that the accidents are highly clustered at a few sites with the significant involvement of heavy vehicles, particularly trucks and buses. A total of 15 such locations are identified and considered to be hazardous. It is expected that the outcome of this research will be helpful not only to improve the safety aspects of the study section; but also to understand the way of accidents happening at the high standard roadway facilities. The application of the new analyses approaches will be useful in identifying cost-effective safety measures relating to the aspects of the road environment and driver behaviour, thereby reducing the likelihood of accidents.

© 2018 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Mahmud SMS, Ferreira L, Hoque MS, Tavassoli A, Islam N. Analysis of road safety related data from a key section of a highway in Bangladesh. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2018;7:2-8.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr7-2/

Thought on suitable material to assist empty fruit bunch composting

Thought on suitable material to assist empty fruit bunch composting

A.Y. Zahrim

Palm oil mill industry is among major agricultural industry in Malaysia. However, the palm oil mills generate large amounts of empty fruit bunches (EFB). Production of 1 tonne of crude palm oil could generate 0.8 tonne EFB. Composting is regarded as a sustainable technology for processing EFB. Composting is a controlled biological process that can accelerate the conversion of EFB to humic substances like product known as compost. The compost can be applied as a soil amendment or mulching. The quality of compost depends on the raw material, process system i.e. reactor or non-reactor, process parameter i.e. carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), moisture, turning frequency, etc.as well as weather/season. Due to inexpensive capital cost, windrow (non-reactor system) is chosen by the composter to operate the composting process…

© 2018 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Zahrim AY. Thought on suitable material to assist empty fruit bunch composting. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2018;7:1.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr7-1/

Estimation of crack width of non-structural walls using finite-element analysis

Estimation of crack width of non-structural walls using finite-element analysis

M. Matsubayashi1, Y. Takase2*, M. Mizoguchi2, K. Inoue3

HIGHLIGHTS

  • In this research, non-structural R/C walls are subjected.
  • Strains of rebar are calculated by 2D finite-element analysis.
  • The results have a good agreement with the force-story angle curves and the maximum principal distributions.
  • Using strain, spacing and diameter of a rebar, the maximum width of a R/C wall is calculated.
  • The crack width of non-structural walls can be reasonably estimated by the proposed method.

ABSTRACT

After recent earthquakes in Japan, there have been a number of reports of damage to non-structural walls in reinforced concrete buildings, which causes problems for their continued use. Thus, it is important to consider not only a structural strength but also its damages in design. According to previous studies, the widths of cracks in beams or walls can be estimated by using the maximum strains of reinforcing bars (rebar). Typically, the strain measured through experiments is used for this estimation. However, it is desired to have a method that can make such estimates without requiring experimental data, in order to design structures more easily. Most previous researches have focused on structural members. Therefore, this study proposes an estimation method for the maximum shear crack width that can be applied to a non-structural wall and uses the strain of a rebar acquired from analysis. Firstly, we conducted the tests of two R/C walls and searched the two test results of non-structural walls in the previous paper. We subsequently analyzed these four specimens with differences between rebar ratio and shear span ratio by 2D finite-element analysis. From the initial analysis, the estimation equation of crack width was proposed. Finally, this proposed method was verified for adaptability of the test results. The results show clearly that the proposed method can reasonably estimate maximum crack widths. However, it was concluded that the proposed estimation method is useful for evaluating damages of R/C non-structural walls. The additional verification is required due to the shortage of test specimens of this study.

© 2018 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Matsubayashi M, Takase Y, Mizoguchi M, Inoue K. Estimation of crack width of non-structural walls using finite-element analysis. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2018;6:18-25.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr6-4/

 

Assessment of construction errors in execution of reinforced concrete T-beams

Assessment of construction errors in execution of reinforced concrete T-beams

EL-Said Abd-Allah Bayoumi1,2,*, Mohamed Abdel-Azeem Eliwa3, Ahmed Gomaa Asran3

HIGHLIGHTS

  • The construction errors in execution of concrete T-beams were observed.
  • The impact level of misplacement of slab reinforcement was studied.
  • The effect of irregular arrangement of slab reinforcement was investigated.
  • Toughness of all specimens was determined.
  • The change in bar diameter of slab reinforcement was observed.

ABSTRACT

The study investigates the effects of the construction errors during the execution of concrete T-beams. Rarely does a month pass without reading in local newspapers about building failures and collapse in Egypt and other parts of the world that led to fatalities and injuries due to human errors. Eight specimens of T-beams were designated to simulate the possible defects in the field, like the impact of misplacement of slab reinforcement, irregular arrangement of slab reinforcement and the change in bar diameter of slab reinforcement on the structural behavior of T-beam sections. A control beam was cast for comparison and the measurements of various parameters including deflections, strains of reinforcement steel and propagation of cracks were made to evaluate to what extent these practice faults influence the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) tested specimens. Results from an experimental investigation indicated that the faulty placement of slab reinforcement leads to a lower bending moment capacity of the slab (brittle behavior) and the steel strain of slab decreases with the decrease of height of slab reinforcement. The irregularity of the reinforcing bars in concrete slab affected the ultimate load of the slab. Also, it was found that well-arranged distribution of reinforcement improves the ductile behavior of the slab and reduces the corresponding deflections. The minimum bar diameter for the reinforcement of slab is 8 mm because the 6 mm diameter reinforcement was found to be weak in resistance to the loads. The quality assurance is very important to reduce the construction errors.

© 2017 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Bayoumi EA, Eliwa MA, Asran AG. Assessment of construction errors in execution of reinforced concrete T-beams. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2018;6:8-17.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr6-3/

Analysis of effect of masonry infill on soft storey building

Analysis of effect of masonry infill on soft storey building

Mahmudul Hasan Bagha, Sumit Purkayastha, Md. Mohiuddin Hassan, Rubieyat Bin Ali*, Md. Mofizul Islam

HIGHLIGHTS

  • In general, storey drifts decrease with the use of masonry infill.
  • Masonry infill can sustain with higher vibration.
  • Masonry infill model is suggested in seismic prone areas.
  • The effect of 5˝ masonry infill is compared with 10˝ infill.
  • The thicker masonry wall is seen to undergo less drift.

ABSTRACT

The vacant first storey is a common feature in modern multistoried building construction. So, this is vulnerable in seismic prone areas. Although multistoried buildings with soft (open) ground floor (GF) are inherently vulnerable to collapse due to seismic load, their construction is still widespread in Bangladesh. This is for keeping space for parking of cars on the ground floor. This study highlights the importance of recognizing soft storey problems in building design and some possible ways to resolve the problems. The main aim is to inspect the characteristics of the tall or multistoried building with and without infilled frames and analyze under seismic loading condition. All types of work consist of major two parts. At first, the lateral load-displacement curve for the column and masonry wall is obtained using nonlinear finite element analysis from which lateral stiffness of the column. Detailed parametric study with different PGA (peak ground acceleration) values, earthquake frequency and the varying number of stories are performed to obtain a guideline of the collapse of different types of buildings under seismic loading. After the non-linear dynamic analysis, the behavior of these structures is compared. All types of analysis are done by ETABS software. It is evident that the natural frequency is completely different from the code – provision of natural frequency due to the presence of infill. The problem of soft storey buildings is that they collapse sooner and easily under seismic excitations. To compare the effect of 5-inch masonry GF infill with 10-inch masonry GF infill is also discussed. It is found that storey displacement is adversely proportional to the use of masonry infill. Masonry infill can sustain with higher vibration and this is stiffer than other cases. So, masonry infill model has a good resisting ability for storey displacement.

© 2018 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Bagha MH, Purkayastha S, Hassan MM, Ali RB, Islam MM. Analysis of effect of masonry infill on soft storey building. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2018;6:2-7.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr6-2/

Importance of database in restoration and preservation of historical tall structures

Importance of database in restoration and preservation of historical tall structures

Haider M. Mekkiyah

Monuments and historical buildings have cultural, historical and artistic significance and it needs continuous restoration works. Examples of these structures are Egyptian pyramids, Washington monument, Eiffel tower, Piza leaning tower and many others. Tall historical structures, such as masonry towers and minarets, are vulnerable to deterioration from extreme weather conditions, nearby developments and occupation. As a result, the safety of these structures is affected. Due to their cultural heritage value, theses structures are considered more important than other ordinary structures. Restoration and preservation of these structures should be given priority by governments. Most of the ancient tall structures were constructed for religion purposes. In ancient Mesopotamia, tall structures were constructed from mud bricks and used as religious temples for worship of the gods. These structures were called Ziggurats and many of them still exist in Iraq and subjected to restoration and preservation works…

© 2018 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Mekkiyah HM. Importance of database in restoration and preservation of historical tall structures. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2018;6:1.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr6-1/

Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research Volume 6, Issue June 2018, Pages 1-25, Articles 1-4 (30 June 2018)

Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research
Volume 6, Issue June 2018, Pages 1-25, Articles 1-4 (30 June 2018)
Editorial Board                                                     p. i
Board of Reviewers 2016                                   p. i
Journal Information                                            p. ii
Contents                                                               p. iii
Articles                                                                  pp. 1-25
© 2018 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.
Volume 5
Volume 4
Volume 3
Volume 2, Issue 1
Volume 1, Issue 1
Articles JACEPRJACEPR

Subgrade soil improvement using coir fiber

Subgrade soil improvement using coir fiber

Tonmoy Kumar Brahmachary *, Md. Kamrul Ahsan

HIGHLIGHTS

  • A few unsoaked and soaked CBR tests were performed on normal soil and soil reinforced with of coir fiber.
  • The coir fiber content was performed highest as 1.75% by anhydrous weight of general soil.
  • Impact of randomly inclusion of coir fiber on CBR value was investigated.
  • CBR test values of strengthened soil were compared with ordinary soil.
  • Optimal coir fiber dosage was found 1% by dry unit weight of soil.

ABSTRACT

Any construction project depends on the stability of the underlying soil. This is the reason why soil stability is an important factor in the field of construction. In case of unstable soil, the soil stability property must be improved to make construction economical. Over the years, numbers of methods were developed for soil stabilization in particular and ground improvement. Among all fiber-reinforced soil technique is one of the most significant methods of ground improvement. There are some common types of natural fiber namely coir, straw, cotton, sisal, bamboo, palm, sugar cane and jute which are mostly used for soil improvement. These types of natural fibers are willingly available, economical, biodegradable and environment amiable. Fiber generally improves the quality of unstable soil. It increases soil strength and reduces swelling. While performing the investigation soil sample was assembled at its maximum dry density (MDD) analogous to its optimum moisture content (OMC) in the CBR mould including and except coir fiber. The coir fiber content was used as 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.25%, 1.50% and 1.75% by waterless weight of normal soil. It was explored from the test result that the soaked and unsoaked CBR value of soil increases with inclusion of coir fiber dosage up to 1.0%, while for over 1.0% fiber dosage gradual decrement in CBR value was occurred. In addition, it was concluded that the unsoaked and soaked CBR test value enhance up to 17.02% and 7.57%, respectively. Moreover, it was witnessed that the most suitable percentage of coil fiber was 1.0. This research can meet the need of ground improvement having low strength soil.

© 2017 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Brahmachary TK, Ahsan MK. Subgrade soil improvement using coir fiber. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;5:24-29.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr5-5/