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Structural characteristics of concrete walls for absorbing earthquake energy

Structural characteristics of concrete walls for absorbing earthquake energy

Keiichi Inoue1*, Masato Iso1, Yuya Takase2, Takasuke Saito3, Koichiro Ishikawa1

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Vibration control wing walls are proposed in previous studies.
  • Loading tests of wall members were performed by using concrete containing PVA fiber and low yield bars.
  • The basic structural properties were described to develop a wall member with deforming and damping characteristics.
  • The specimen used for the loading test was modeled and FEM analyses were performed.
  • The applicability and the problems of FEM analysis for concrete wall members were discussed.

ABSTRACT

Recently, given the seismic design of buildings and earthquake resistant reinforcement of existing buildings, an important goal involves improving strength and toughness. Sometimes vibration control structures and seismic isolation structures are usually employed, but generally it is desirable to improve seismic performance at low cost. Therefore, it is useful to reduce the deformation of a building due to the stiffness of a member for small and medium earthquake ground motions. Additionally, when a large earthquake motion occurs, it is useful to ensure that the deformation is as low as possible through the energy absorbing capacity of the member and to limit the places where damage occurs. Thus, the concept of a concrete wall member with energy absorption capability was proposed. The purpose of the study is to grasp the fundamental structural properties of walls with an energy absorption capability. A test specimen was prepared using concrete mixed with PVA fiber and steel bars with low yield strength. It was intended to create the wall members with tough type deformability. The structural characteristics of the energy absorbing type wall member are examined by performing a loading experiment. Subsequently, simulation accuracy is verified by performing FEM analysis. The results of the experimental study revealed that it is possible to ensure sufficient performance of wall members with energy absorption capacity. The results of analytical study revealed that a type of simulation regarding load and displacement is possible by FEM analysis even for wall members with toughness and high deformation. In order to improve the accuracy of FEM analysis more, it should be improved so that the ratio of bending deformation and shear deformation of the wall member can be accurately evaluated.

© 2017 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Inoue K, Iso M, Takase Y, Saito T, Ishikawa K. Structural characteristics of concrete walls for absorbing earthquake energy. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;5:17-23.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr5-4/

Development of seismic retrofitting technology by spraying PVA fiber-reinforced mortar

Development of seismic retrofitting technology by spraying PVA fiber-reinforced mortar

Masato Iso1,*, Koichiro Ishikawa1, Keiich Inoue1, Ayato Honma1, Atsuhisa Ogawa2

HIGHLIGHTS

  • PVA-FRM was developed as a material of seismic retrofitting method.
  • The appropriate amounts of fibers were investigated.
  • The retrofitting effect of PVA-FRM was verified by RC columns retrofitted with additional wing walls.
  • The appropriate volume content of PVA fibers was 0.3%.
  • The retrofitting effect of RC columns retrofitted with additional wing walls using PVA-FRM was almost the same as normal concrete one.

ABSTRACT

In Japan in particular, the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake, the Tohoku earthquake off the Pacific coast, and the Kumamoto earthquake occurred in 1995, 2011 and 2016, respectively. Since many reinforced concrete (RC) buildings designed by the abolished Japanese seismic codes before 1981 were severely damaged by these earthquakes, the necessity of a seismic diagnosis and a seismic retrofit for the existing buildings was strongly recognized. On the other hand, noise and vibrations will occur upon doing work for the seismic retrofit. Furthermore, the work pollutes the environment, and requires usage restrictions and the temporary evacuation of the building. Therefore, these become a large burden for the building residents and tenants. The objective of this research is to develop premix “polyvinyl alcohol fiber reinforced mortar (PVA-FRM)” that is utilized for the seismic retrofitting material of existing buildings, and to propose a new seismic retrofitting method by spraying PVA-FRM. At first, the various tests, which were a compressive test, a split tensile test, a flow test, a test of dry shrinkage cracking, a spraying test, a bonding test and an adhesion test, were conducted to clarify the material properties, the fresh properties and the filling performance of PVA-FRM. Furthermore, the existing RC column retrofitted with the additional wing walls, which used the developed PVA-FRM, was tested to reveal the reinforcing effect and the structural performance. In addition, RC bare column without strengthening, and the existing RC column retrofitted with the additional RC wing walls were prepared to compare with test specimen using PVA-FRM. As the results of these material tests, the material properties of PVA-FRM were almost same as normal concrete. The appropriate volume content of PVA fibers was decided at 0.3% due to tests of flow, dry shrinkage cracking and spraying. On the results of structural testing, the proposed seismic retrofitting method using PVA-FRM could enhance the seismic behavior of the existing RC column. The effect of seismic retrofit using PVA-FRM was almost the same as normal concrete.

© 2017 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Iso M, Ishikawa K, Inoue K, Honma A, Ogawa A. Development of seismic reinforcement technology by spraying PVA fiber-reinforced mortar. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;5:7-16.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr5-3/

ALOSS: A structure information retrieval system of existing shell and spatial structures in the world

ALOSS: A structure information retrieval system of existing shell and spatial structures in the world

K. Ishikawa*, M. Iso, K. Inoue

HIGHLIGHTS

  • ALOSS is an acronym for “Album of Spatial Structures”.
  • The URL of ALOSS is http://aloss.jp.
  • ALOSS was created by a team based at the University of Fukui, Japan.
  • It is mainly based on information collected by Mr Isono, who is a structural engineer.

ABSTRACT

ALOSS is an acronym for “Album of Spatial Structures”. This is the name for a database of spatial structures from all over the world containing building names, photographs, addresses, architects, structural engineers, completion years, and so on. This database was established in Japanese and English languages on the internet in 1997. It is mainly based on information collected by Mr. Isono, who is a member and official photographer of IASS (International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures). He is a structural engineer with specialty in membrane structures. The URL of ALOSS is http://aloss.jp. So far, ALOSS has data on over 2000 structures, and this number is increasing steadily. Information relating to ALOSS is stored in a computer system at the University of Fukui, Japan and this information is being continually updated and refined. The purpose of this paper is to describe ALOSS, and to explain the manner in which it may be used to retrieve information. The results revealed that ALOSS is a useful source of information for students, architects and engineers interested in study of various types of the shell and spatial structures. It applies a pictorial and a keyword search method. This paper presented precisely and briefly all the basic aspects of ALOSS and especially the way of finding specific information about required spatial structure. The chronological chart is also presented by classification in the viewpoint of the structural system using the retrieval way of ALOSS. The structural material and the system innovation of spatial structures are shown among the technological development progress corresponding to the proposed chronological chart.

© 2017 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Ishikawa K, Iso M, Inoue K. ALOSS: A structure information retrieval system of existing shell and spatial structures in the world. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;5:2-6.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr5-2/

Translation of civil engineering research into industry practice

Translation of civil engineering research into industry practice

Anne Ng1, H. Tran2

It has been widely recognized that the rapid increase of global population, impacts of climate change, material deterioration and scarcity of natural resources require quality and safe service as well as effective and efficient management of infrastructure assets including water supply, drainage, bridge, pavement and building. These are significant challenges that have been gratefully addressed and tackled by robust and scholarly research works. Although research knowledge is being produced at an increasing rate, change in industry practice to reflect this knowledge translation has lagged behind. For instance, condition monitoring and condition prediction are two important tasks in the infrastructure asset management. For condition monitoring, the current management practice of concrete stormwater pipes in Australia still rely on the closed circuit television (CCTV) inspection to assess internal condition of pipes such as cracking, fractures, delamination for structural defects and tree roots and deposits for hydraulic defects. The CCTV inspection is considered a 20 year old technology with limited capability as compared to the more advanced techniques such as radar and ultrasound. In bridge management, the regular inspection is still being conducted by visual walk-through inspection while the more objective and more expensive inspection techniques are used when more accurate assessment is required…

© 2017 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Ng A, Tran H. Translation of civil engineering research into industry practice. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;5:1.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr5-1/

Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research Volume 5, Issue December 2017, Pages 1-29, Articles 1-5 (30 December 2017)

Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research
Volume 5, Issue December 2017, Pages 1-29, Articles 1-5 (30 December 2017)
Editorial Board                                                     p. i
Board of Reviewers 2016                                   p. i
Journal Information                                            p. ii
Contents                                                               p. iii
Articles                                                                  pp. 1-29
Ng A, Tran H. Translation of civil engineering research into industry practice. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;5:1.

Ishikawa K, Iso M, Inoue K. ALOSS: A structure information retrieval system of existing shell and spatial structures in the world. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;5:2-6.

Iso M, Ishikawa K, Inoue K, Honma A, Ogawa A. Development of seismic reinforcement technology by spraying PVA fiber-reinforced mortar. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;5:7-16.

Inoue K, Iso M, Takase Y, Saito T, Ishikawa K. Structural characteristics of concrete walls for absorbing earthquake energy. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;5:17-23.

Brahmachary TK, Ahsan MK. Subgrade soil improvement using coir fiber. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;5:24-29.

© 2017 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

Volume 4
Volume 3
Volume 2, Issue 1
Volume 1, Issue 1

Articles JACEPR

JACEPR

Improvement of expansive soil properties used in earthworks of highways and railroads using cement kiln dust

Improvement of expansive soil properties used in earthworks of highways and railroads using cement kiln dust

Ahmed Mancy Mosa1,*, Qais Sahib Banyhussan2, Rana Amir Yousif2

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) was used to improve soil properties.
  • Different CKD contents were adopted.
  • The effects of CKD on engineering properties of soil were studied.
  • Mineralogical and morphological properties of improved soil were analyzed.
  • Interaction of CKD with soil particles generates CSH and CaCO3.

ABSTRACT

Expansive soils exhibit swell potential, compressibility and low strength especially in the presence of water. These soils, if used in highways and railroads earthworks where its unavoidable, can cause several damages in the structure of these major transportation facilities. Therefore, improvement of this type of soil is necessary. Using commercial admixtures in improvement encounter supplementary cost. Therefore, using of by-product material is economic and effective alternative. Cement kiln dust (CKD) is generated in huge quantities as a by-product material in Portland cement plants. Therefore, this study aims to use CKD to improve expansive soil properties. This study involved series of laboratory tests on sets of untreated samples and samples treated with different doses of CKD to investigate their effects on the properties of expansive soil. The investigation includes classification tests, compaction tests, permeability tests, compressibility tests, shear strength tests, swelling tests, and California Bearing Ration (CBR) tests. In addition, chemical tests were performed to determine the changes in pH values of control and treated soils. Furthermore, SEM and XRD tests were performed to explore the mineralogical and morphological properties of the original and the soil treated with 14% CKD and to investigate the generation of new products. The results exhibited significant improvement in treated soil properties; the optimum CKD dose was found to be 14% of dry weight of soil. As percentages of values determined for untreated soil, the values of liquid limit, plasticity index, compressibility coefficient, expansion coefficient, and swelling ratio of soil treated with 14% CKD decreased to 57%, 14%, 21%, 11%, and 9%, respectively whereas CBR value increased to 828%. Moreover, the tests revealed the generation of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcite (CaCO3) which are responsible of creation of great bond among the treated soil particles increase its tightness and decrease its expansibility.

© 2017 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Mosa AM, Banyhussan QS, Yousif RA. Improvement of expansive soil properties used in earthworks of highways and railroads using cement kiln dust. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;4:13-24.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr4-3/

Physical, chemical and biological characterization of Lake Bardawil in northeast Egypt: A review

Physical, chemical and biological characterization of Lake Bardawil in northeast Egypt: A review

M.A. Bek1,2,*, M.K. Elnemr3, Amimul Ahsan4,5

HIGHLIGHTS

  • The characterization of Lake Bardawil in northeast Egypt is presented.
  • It is a hypersaline shallow lake in Mediterranean shore of Sinai
  • Physical, chemical and biological properties of lake water are determined.
  • The most parameters were within the standard limits of WHO.
  • Due to forthcoming mega development projects, the lake characteristics are of highest importance.

ABSTRACT

Lake Bardawil is one of the most important and hypersaline lakes in the world. The lake has major contribution to wildlife habitats. The lake is considered as one of the important stations (rest point) for birds during the annual winter journey, in addition to other features of the lake. However, very limited literature review on the lake is available. The present paper is an attempt to provide a brief review on various aspects of the lake. Lake Bardawil lies on the fringe of the Mediterranean Sea. It is classified as a hypersaline shallow lake located along the Mediterranean shore of the Sinai region (31°09 N, 33°08 E), Egypt. The lake average area is 685 km2, and it extends for a distance of about 80 km, with a maximum width of about 20 km and a maximum depth of about 3 m. It is separated from the Mediterranean by a long convex sand bar; the main water body of the lake lies towards the east occupying a section along the coast of about 30 km long ending with Zaranik protected area. Due to the forthcoming mega development projects in Egypt, the lake characteristics are of highest importance for better management and conservation of this valuable ecosystem. The present results reveal that the values of most physical and chemical parameters are within the standard permissible values cited by World Health Organization (WHO).

© 2017 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Bek MA, Elnemr MK, Ahsan A. Physical, chemical and biological characterization of Lake Bardawil in northeast Egypt: A review. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;4:4-12.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr4-2/

Enhancing environmental sustainability with solutions from the study of environmental humanities

Enhancing environmental sustainability with solutions from the study of environmental humanities

Ngai Weng Chan

The literature on environmental management shows that the majority of environmental problems facing humanity in the 21st Century are not nature-based but human-created [1]. Unfortunately, however, human society has chosen to tackle such problems via the structural approach, viz. employing science and technical solutions while ignoring the root causes [2]. While building structures such as dams (for water supply) may appear effective, but it become ineffective if that does not involve the water users (humans) as water demands escalate exponentially [3]. Clearly, the structural approach of building engineering structures has been found to be ineffective in the context of the modern era of complex environmental as well as societal change [4]. When environmental change is rapid and complex (e.g. global climate change) and societal change is equally multi-dimensional (e.g. war or migration), environmental problems also become multi-dimensional. More importantly, when environmental problems have their root causes in human society, clearly the most appropriate and effective way to address them is not through science or technology but through tackling the human causes…

© 2017 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Chan NW. Enhancing environmental sustainability with solutions from the study of environmental humanities. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;4:1-3.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr4-1/

Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research, Volume 4, Issue June 2017, Pages 1-24, Articles 1-3 (30 June 2017)

Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research

Volume 4, Issue June 2017, Pages 1-24, Articles 1-3 (30 June 2017)

Editorial Board                                                     p. i

Board of Reviewers 2016                                   p. i

Journal Information                                           p. ii

Contents                                                                p. iii

Articles                                                                  pp. 1-24

Chan NW.
Enhancing environmental sustainability with solutions from the study of environmental humanities.
Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;4:1-3.

Bek MA, Elnemr MK, Ahsan A.
Physical, chemical and biological characterization of Lake Bardawil in northeast Egypt: A review.
Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;4:4-12.

Mosa AM, Banyhussan QS, Yousif RA.
Improvement of expansive soil properties used in earthworks of highways and railroads using cement kiln dust.
Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2017;4:13-24.

© 2017 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

Volume 3
Volume 2, Issue 1
Volume 1, Issue 1,

Articles JACEPR

JACEPR

Placement of stream barb encouraged river channel flow towards bank stability

Placement of stream barb encouraged river channel flow towards bank stability

Shaikh Abdullah Al Mamun Hossain1,2, Wang Lixue1,*, Md. Jahir Uddin3, Amimul Ahsan4,5

HIGHLIGHTS

  • River flow and bank stability were observed using iRIC-Nays2D model.
  • The model was run by setting of barbs at one bank and both bank sidewalls.
  • Scour reduced at the bank side due to sub-critical flow and induced stability.
  • Scour occurred at barb head due to hydraulic bounce with flow mixing.
  • Increased flow velocity/depth enhanced the center channel conveyance.

ABSTRACT

The study was observed placement of barbs on river channel sidewall showing river flow fortifies towards the bank stability using current flow and channel bed changes investigation solver model. The model was run by setting of barbs constructed at one bank sidewall and both bank sidewalls of the river channel. The current flow depth and discharge used were averagely 0.044 m and 0.028 m3/s. The model reproduced results on flow velocity, depth and bed elevation after placed of barbs with time. The simulation outcomes established the environs of barb stretched a significant reduction in scour alongside the river bank sidewall which persuaded sediment deposition beside increase the center channel current velocity. At the upward side of the structures, sediment bars were formed along the river bank sidewall for sub-critical flow which induced sedimentation and bank stability. Moreover, scour occurred at downward side of barb end due to hydraulic bounce and turbulence current that increased flow velocity and enhanced the river channel conveyance. Furthermore, it was observed that stream barbs placed at both bank sidewalls would be able to encourage center channel flow and persuade the bank stability.

© 2017 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Hossain SAAM, Lixue W, Uddin MJ, Ahsan A. Placement of stream barb encouraged river channel flow towards bank stability. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2016;3:15-22.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr3-4/