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Stabilization of lateritic soil with blast furnace slag

Stabilization of lateritic soil with blast furnace slag  

M.A. Mojeed1, R.A. Taiwo2,*, A.H. Adegoke3

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Lateritic soil is usually poorly graded and needs to be stabilized.
  • Samples were mixed with blast furnace slag with varying percentages of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%.
  • Samples were tested for compaction, undrained compressive & shear strength, and CBR.
  • The undrained compressive strength improves at 8% and 2% addition of blast furnace slag to samples.
  • Blast furnace slag is a good soil stabilizer.

ABSTRACT

Lateritic soil is a group of extremely weathered soil. The soil is formed by the concentration of hydrated oxides of iron and aluminum. Most of the lateritic soil has considerable high compaction densities. However, under moisture conditions and adverse traffic, the lateritic soil performs poorly. Thus, such behavior of soil can lead to great damage of engineered structures and therefore it is important to treat the soil in order to be useful for engineering purposes. The aim of this research is to evaluate the engineering properties of lateritic soil that is stabilized with blast furnace slag. The lateritic soil was collected from a proposed site for the construction of an indoor sports hall at the Obanla campus of the Federal University of Technology, Akure located in the western part of Nigeria. Two samples (Samples A and B) were collected at depth 0.7 -1 m from different locations. The samples were mixed with blast furnace slag with varying percentages of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% and were tested for compaction, undrained compressive & shear strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR). All tests were performed in accordance to the British Standards (BS 1377). The interpretation of the results shows that Sample A gives optimum engineering performance in terms of Atterberg limit, compaction and CBR when 6% of the blast furnace is added to it. Furthermore, Sample B gives optimum engineering properties (in terms of Atterberg limit, compaction and CBR) when 8% of blast furnace slag is added to it. However, the undrained compressive strength improves at 8% and 2% addition of blast furnace slag to Samples A and B respectively.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Mojeed MA, Taiwo RA, Adegoke AH. Stabilization of lateritic soil with blast furnace slag. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2020;10:4-9.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr10-2/

Challenges of waste management in densely populated countries under COVID-19 pandemic

Challenges of waste management in densely populated countries under COVID-19 pandemic  

S. Shams

Solid waste management (SWM) has been a major concern in developing countries due to lack of adequate funding, manpower and equipment. Economic development and urbanization, improved lifestyle, and life expectancy of residents of city play a key role in increasing the quantity, complexity, and nature of municipal solid waste [1]. The issues of waste management are further challenging with widespread transmission of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) particularly in densely populated countries like Brazil, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Mexico and, Indonesia where the number of cases is increasing at an alarming rate. Amidst this global pandemic, additional volume of hazardous waste (resulting from PPEs like – hand gloves, face masks, apron, tissues) mixed with solid waste possesses a serious health threat to the waste pickers/workers…

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Shams S. Challenges of waste management in densely populated countries under COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2020;10:1-3.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr10-1/

Rainfall data validation using remote sensing and in-situ weather station data

Rainfall data validation using remote sensing and in-situ weather station data 

A.A. Ibrahim*

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Data validation is an essential tool of representing accuracy of data in a given interval of time.
  • Rainfall data vary periodically and also from place to place.
  • Rainfall data were collected from various weather stations and space (satellite).
  • Potiskum received the highest rainfall over the years.
  • In-situ weather station’s rainfall data is more reliable than remotely sensed data.

ABSTRACT

Data validation is a technique that helps to ensure the value stored is reliable and the best possible representation of the accurate value of variable at the measurement site at a given period or in a given interval of time. This study was carried out to compare and validate remotely sensed data and in-situ weather station’s data. Rainfall data were collected from various weather stations from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) of three local government areas which are Maiduguri, Potiskum and Nguru. It also extracts rainfall data on remotely sensed data collected from GEONET Cast Unit, Department of Geography, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. The study was on environmental data validation which focused on rainfall data from in-situ weather station and remotely sensed data for the duration of four (4) years (2011-2014). The study compared the data collected from three locations; Maiduguri local government area (LGA), Potiskum LGA, and Nguru LGA. It revealed that Potiskum received the highest rainfall over the years. It was also observed that the month received the highest rainfall was August. Hence, each season has its own light, temperature, and weather patterns that repeat yearly. Graphs shown that they all fitted with some discrepancies. The highest rainfall intensity was found in Potiskum and then in Nguru and Maiduguri respectively. In conclusion, space (satellite) data are not reliable compared to the ground weather station data.

© 2019 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Ibrahim AA. Rainfall data validation using remote sensing and in-situ weather station data. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2019;9:25-32.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr9-4/

Analysis of site amplification of earthquake ground motion at Mongla port, Bangladesh 

Analysis of site amplification of earthquake ground motion at Mongla port, Bangladesh 

Md. Asiful Islam*, Md. Rokonuzzman

HIGHLIGHTS

  • The site amplification of Mongla port based on shear wave velocity is estimated.
  • DEEPSOIL program is used for estimating peak ground acceleration.
  • The characteristics of seismic ground response and normalized response spectra are studied.
  • The average value of shear wave velocity is 194 m/s.
  • The Mongla port is classified as Site-D according to IBC.

ABSTRACT

Seismologists usually define strong ground motion as the strong earthquake shaking that occurs close to a causative fault. Ground motion is produced by waves that are generated by a sudden slip on a fault or sudden pressure at the explosive source and travel through the earth and along its surface. The aim of this research is to estimate the site amplification of Mongla port based on shear wave velocity. For estimating peak ground acceleration, DEEPSOIL program was used. With soil layer depth, bulk density and damping as inputs, peak ground acceleration by linear analysis was conducted. Four input motions such as Chi Chi earthquake, Kobe earthquake, Northridge earthquake and Loma Gilroy earthquake are recorded in rock in this analysis, which are scaled to 0.12g value. Improved spectral amplification factors for different site conditions based on an extensive theoretical and experimental study were used. The characteristics of seismic ground response and comparison of normalized response spectra with the BNBC seismic code are also studied. The average value of shear wave velocity is 194 m/s and Mongla port is classified as Site-D according to IBC. The study will help to provide a guideline for reclamation procedure to minimize seismic hazards of reclaimed areas and to suggest the suitable ground improvement techniques for such areas.

© 2019 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Islam MA, Rokonuzzman M. Analysis of site amplification of earthquake ground motion at Mongla port, Bangladesh. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2019;9:13-24.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr9-3/

Vulnerability and risk assessment of noise pollution on worker’s health in different industries of Khulna city, Bangladesh

Vulnerability and risk assessment of noise pollution on worker’s health in different industries of Khulna city, Bangladesh 

Debatosh Banik Partha*, Md. Saiful Islam

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Measurement of noise levels in five industries of Khulna city was done.
  • A comprehensive questionnaire survey was done among the workers of the industries.
  • Vulnerability analysis of the industries in tackling noise hazard was done based on questionnaire.
  • Various noise impacts and risks on worker’s health and their causes with effects were investigated subtly.
  • Control measures of industrial noise were prescribed.

ABSTRACT

Industries in Bangladesh produce a huge amount of noise that affects the quality of the industrial environment as well as the worker’s health. Previous studies show that, in USA, 11 million workers are exposed to occupational noise. In Sweden, 9% of total workers experience long term foul noise environment as well. Main objectives of this study are to analyze the vulnerability of industrial systems in tackling noise hazard and to establish a comprehensive scenario of health risk based on the jeopardy and weakness of worker’s health prone to this overt and uncontrolled industrial hazard. Different industries of Khulna city, Bangladesh under five categories e.g. electrical equipment industry, cement factory, metal & steel industry, jute mill and electricity production industry were chosen based on their location and industrial scale. Vulnerability and health risk were assessed using PRA tool and questionnaire survey approach. Occupational safety of workers was checked and the causes of high noise production were justified. The maximum vulnerability of noise hazard was 17.42 for power generation industry followed by 15.82, 15, 14.41, 12.24 of heavy metal, jute, cement, and electrical equipment industry, respectively. The most vulnerable industry thus found in this study was the power generation industry. The questionnaire survey for determining vulnerability also unlocked the health issues of workers. It shows that among 75 workers in total, 68% of them had a serious headache, 50.67% were annoyed, 33.33% workers feel dizziness and 29.33% were insomniacs being a victim of this direct industrial noise exposure. Based on vulnerability analysis and health risk assessment, this study demonstrates the cause and detrimental effects of noise pollution to alert the exposed community and to ensure safety of workers in a noise-free environment of the workplace.

© 2019 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Partha DB, Islam MS. Vulnerability and risk assessment of noise pollution on worker’s health in different industries of Khulna city, Bangladesh. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2019;9:3-12.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr9-2/

Application of traffic conflict technique (TCT) for safety evaluation is a better alternative for developing countries

Application of traffic conflict technique (TCT) for safety evaluation is a better alternative for developing countries

S.M. Sohel Mahmud

Safety assessment, including the selection of intervention treatments, is mainly based on the application of traditional approaches. Such approaches have a long history, in terms of their robustness, methodological development, research and application. However, these approaches are relying primarily on the use of historical data and/or field observation which are often questioned due to some major limitations, especially in developing countries. Firstly, traditional approaches have very often been of a “wait and see”, nature, i.e. safety countermeasures are not considered until the crash occurrences become unacceptable. Most of the traditional approaches are heavily reliant on historical crash data, whereas many of the crashes are not reported consistently in crash databases. In addition to the problems related to the underreporting and inconsistent recording, there are some other issues of crash data which present significant challenges. The accumulation of sufficiently large number of sample data is necessary to obtain a statistically reliable result. As a crash is a random event, a long period (around 3 to 5 years) is needed to gather a statistically significant sample. This problem becomes worse when the sample is segregated by different features, such as by location, vehicle types, time of occurrence, etc…

© 2019 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Mahmud SMS. Application of traffic conflict technique (TCT) for safety evaluation is a better alternative for developing countries. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2019;9:1-2.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr9-1/

Scenario of noise hazard in industries of Bangladesh: Spatial noise mapping approach

Scenario of noise hazard in industries of Bangladesh: Spatial noise mapping approach

Debatosh Banik Partha*, Md. Saiful Islam

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Noise levels in five industries of Khulna city were studied.
  • Depiction of noise climate is presented based on noise indices.
  • Spatial contouring noise maps were developed using ArcGIS.
  • Comparison on degree of noise pollution caused by the industries was implicated.
  • Noise abatement strategies and different control measures were prescribed.

ABSTRACT

Noise pollution gained much attention in recent years for its insidious specialty of projecting its effects on individuals where individuals can hardly notice noise as the cause. Developed countries are handling this issue by applying various act and legislation such as Directive 2002/49/EC (END) with innovative engineering control ways like less vibratory foundations, sound screening, mandatory earplugs to reduce the catastrophe of overall noise pollution. This study aims at one of the most affected sectors of noise pollution, the industries, to assess the noise levels produced by the industries and establish a rigid scenario of industrial environment quality. Five industries under distinct categories of Khulna city, Bangladesh were selected and sound pressure levels from exact locations were extracted using an environmental meter along with a GPS meter. Noise pollution indices (L10, L50, L90, NC, NEI, Leq and Lnp) were determined from raw noise data and indicative noise maps were developed based on these indices using ArcGIS. Study shows that the maximum average Leq derived from other indices was 94.4 dB (A) for jute industry followed by 93.5 dB (A), 87.3 dB (A), 85.3 dB (A) for power generation, metal & steel, and electrical equipment industry, respectively which exceeds the sound limit (85 dB A) described by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Results of noise mapping show that the propagation of noise spurred from the sources to the boundary edges of the industries. This study is an aggregate assessment of the industrial environment quality based on noise pollution presented by the amalgamation of two different approaches, i.e. noise indices and spatial noise mapping. It opens the scope of assessing noise levels in different sectors tarnished by noise pollution and helps to understand the core characteristics of noise pollution easily.

© 2019 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Partha DB, Islam MS. Scenario of noise hazard in industries of Bangladesh: Spatial noise mapping approach. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2019;8:17-25.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr8-4/

Traffic flow prediction by incorporating weather information in Naïve Bayes Classifier

Traffic flow prediction by incorporating weather information in Naïve Bayes Classifier

F.I. Rahman1,*, A. Hasnat2, A.A. Lisa2

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Naïve models are easy to use in real-world applications due to their uncomplicatedness.
  • Traffic flow is directly affected by weather condition.
  • About 25% mean absolute percentage error (R2=0.81) is found in naïve Bayes classifier.
  • It can be applied in traffic management.
  • It can provide logistic support to transportation agencies.

ABSTRACT

Traffic flow prediction is a fundamental element of the Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) and the Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS). Such information may assist travelers in making better route choices and departure time decisions. Better management and traffic controlling system can be taken by transportation agencies to reduce congestion using traffic prediction. But accurate prediction is a challenging task for transportation engineers. Naïve models are the easiest process for traffic flow prediction. In this study, weather information or conditions are used in the naïve model for better traffic flow prediction. Naïve Bayes Classifier (NBC) is used here because of its easy application and low computation cost. In this study, five months of historical traffic flow data are trained with weather conditions. Then, considering weather conditions, the traffic flow of one month is predicted. One hour interval traffic flow prediction considering weather information in the NBC has a 25.019% mean absolute percentage error and the R-squared value is 0.81.

© 2019 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Rahman FI, Hasnat A, Lisa AA. Traffic flow prediction by incorporating weather information in Naïve Bayes Classifier. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2019;8:10-16.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr8-3/

Study simulation of shallow foundation behavior using different finite element models

Study simulation of shallow foundation behavior using different finite element models 

M. Waheed1,*, N. Asmael2

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Simulation of shallow foundation using different FEM was studied.
  • Behavior of small and large scale shallow foundation in clayey soil was determined.
  • For a small scale, the hardening soil model is more realistic.
  • In case of large scale, the three simulation models can be used.
  • The hardening soil model is the best for a large scale.

ABSTRACT

The behavior of the shallow foundation depends mainly on the soil supporting it. The numerical programs provide simulation of soil behavior in large scale that cannot be conducted practically. It represents a great benefit of numerical analysis. The computer program should include the appropriate material model to produce realistic and logical results. This paper aims to study simulation of shallow foundation using different models of finite elements and comparing the numerical result with experimental one. The Plaxis-3D program is used for developing the numerical models. Three models are utilized during modeling soil behavior, i.e. Mohr-Coulomb, Hardening and soft soil model. The behavior of small and large scale shallow foundation under axial loading in clayey soil was studied. The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the result of modeling with the experimental one to find which model can better predict the soil behavior. It is found that for the small scale foundation, the simulation of the Mohr-Coulomb model matches the load-settlement curve at the initial straight portion and then over predicts, so a great care must be taken to use this model. The soft soil (creep) model gives the straight line response to a wide range which is invalid (compared with the experimental curve). The representation using the hardening soil model is more realistic and gives better results. In case of the large scale foundation, these three models can be used for simulation, where the simulation of the hardening soil model is the best.

© 2019 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Waheed M, Asmael N. Study simulation of shallow foundation behavior using different finite element models. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2019;8:4-9.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr8-2/

Thoughts on future development and application of hybrid finite-discrete element method

Thoughts on future development and application of hybrid finite-discrete element method

H.Y. Liu

The combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM) proposed in 1995 [1] incorporates the advantages of the most advanced continuous and discontinuous methods and thus can naturally model the transition from continuum to discontinuum during material damage and failure. Correspondingly, FDEM has been applied and further developed by a number of researchers around the world to simulate the damage and fracture of civil engineering materials and the collapse and fragmentation of civil engineering structures, especially since the first two-dimensional (2D) open-source FDEM software, i.e. the Y2D code [2], was made available to the research community in 2004. Most notably, Y-GUI [3] was developed to facilitate other researchers to use the Y2D code by providing a graphic user interface. At the same time, the three-dimensional (3D) FDEM was developed and a virtual geoscience workbench, i.e. Y-VGW [4], was proposed to simplify the use of Y2D/3D code through a series of open-source and commercial periphery software such as GID or GMESH for visually preparing the numerical model and MAYAVI for graphically displaying the computational results…

© 2019 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Liu HY. Thought on future development and application of hybrid finite-discrete element method. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research 2019;8:1-3.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jacepr8-1/