Archives

Modeling and reliability assessment for rainwater harvesting system in a tropical region

Modeling and reliability assessment for rainwater harvesting system in a tropical region

T. Ahmad Mohammad1*, M. Johari Megat Mohd. Noor2

HIGHLIGHTS

  • A rainwater harvesting (RWH) system was installed in UPM for reliability assessment.
  • The RWH model was assessed using the real data on roof, roof material and rainwater intensity.
  • Reliability was evaluated then using the real data collected from the installed system.
  • The harvested rainwater was used for toilet flushing in UPM.
  • The reliability of RWH system was found to be ranged between 26.6 and 100%.

ABSTRACT

Rainwater harvesting is a technique of capturing, storing and using the rainwater for meeting part of domestic water demand in both urban and rural areas. Reliability of a rainwater harvesting system is used to compare the collected volume of rainwater with the consumed water volume either for potable or non-potable uses. Typically, the rainwater harvesting system is composed of the catchment (roof), gutter, rainwater pipe, and storage tank. In the present study, a rainwater harvesting system is installed at the Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. The system is tested using the data for 24 different rain events. The collected data includes rain depth and rainwater volume. Depending on rainwater depth and duration, it is found that the rainwater volume was ranged between 0.027 and 4.03 m³. The actual data is used to produce an empirical model for predicting the collected rainwater volume. Calibration and validation processes are conducted to the proposed model and T-test shows that the model prediction is within 95% level of confidence. Also, the water consumption for toilet flushing is monitored using water meter. Depending on the daily water demand and recorded rainwater depth, the reliability of the installed rainwater harvesting system when used for toilet flushing was computed and found to be ranged between 26.61 and  100%.

© 2018 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Mohammad TA, Noor MJMM. Modeling and reliability assessment for rainwater harvesting system in a tropical region. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2018;12:4-10.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp12-2/

Hybrid thermal and membrane desalination technologies for the GCC countries

Hybrid thermal and membrane desalination technologies for the GCC countries

Abdelnasser Mabrouk

Thermal desalination has established a stronghold in co-generation power-desalting plants in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman) where large amount of desalting water are needed and energy cost are considerably low. On the other hand, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) has lower energy consumption due to the recent developments in membrane materials and energy recovery technology. Nevertheless, thermal desalination plants (MSF and MED) is still used in the GCC countries due to its better reliability compared to RO due to the challenging Gulf seawater conditions (elevated salinity, elevated temperature, elevated turbidity and red tides that have forced shut down of RO plants). Realizing the benefits and the challenges of the thermal and membrane technologies, process designers are investigating hybrid (thermal–membrane) configurations. The synergy of the present commercial hybrid thermal-membrane desalting plants is limited to using common intake/outfall facilities, and mixing the desalinated water of each system, while running independently at the same site…

© 2018 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Mabrouk A. Hybrid thermal and membrane desalination technologies for the GCC countries. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2018;12:1-3.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp12-1/