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Groundwater assessment of Narayanganj city of Bangladesh

Groundwater assessment of Narayanganj city of Bangladesh

M.I.I. Rabbi1*, P.M. Toma2

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Physicochemical quality of the groundwater in Narayanganj region was investigated.
  • Majority of the samples contain high concentrations of iron and hardness.
  • It was found that about 75% of samples have odor.
  • Many tube-wells have turbid water.
  • The groundwater in the studied area is not appropriate for drinking and household use.

ABSTRACT

Groundwater uses have escalated dramatically in Bangladesh over the past three decades, particularly for farming purposes, as large parts of the country have little access to surface water supplies. In the Narayanganj region, around 90% of the inhabitants use groundwater for drinking and household purposes. However, the majority of diseases in developing countries are caused by drinking contaminated water. Therefore, groundwater quality analysis and assessment are of utmost importance. In this study, the physicochemical quality of the groundwater supplied to Bangladesh’s Narayanganj region was investigated. A total of 25 samples were collected from different tube-wells of 12 wards among 27 wards for analysis purposes. To assess the physical and chemical contaminated content, various standard laboratory tests were performed and assimilated with WHO and BDS. Six physiochemical parameters namely pH, iron, hardness, turbidity, odor, and color were tested. By appraising the study, it was clear that the majority of the samples contain high concentrations of iron and hardness, and these samples deviated significantly from WHO and BDS standards. In terms of the odor, it was found that about 75% of samples have odor. pH of all samples dropped below the permissible limits. Many tube-wells have turbid water. Excess turbidity poses a risk to health and offers protection to pathogenic microorganisms. In the case of a few samples, the concentrations of hardness and conductivity are high too. The higher iron content can occur because of geological aquifer formation. Considering the higher concentration of these chosen parameters, the groundwater in the studied area is not appropriate for drinking and household use.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Rabbi MII, Toma PM. Groundwater assessment of Narayanganj city of Bangladesh. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;20:2-5.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp20-2/

Desalination to slake the thrust of people

Desalination to slake the thrust of people

Amimul Ahsan

Desalination provides a huge amount of potable water in many countries of the world, e.g. USA, KSA, UAE, Japan, Singapore, and Australia. The global Water Awards (GWA) declared recently the winner for 2020 Desalination Plant of the Year. That is Shoaiba 3 Exp. 2 IWP in KSA with a capacity of 250,000 m3/d. It fulfills the need of a million people in the regions of Jeddah, Makka and Taif. About $253 million plant was developed by ACWA Power with the Saudi Water Partnership Company (SWPC) [1]. It is 100% owned by the private sector as the first major infrastructure project in KSA. It reduces footprint and capital costs, while the operating cost on chemical dosing and post-treatment is minimized [1]….

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Ahsan A. Desalination to slake the thrust of people. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;20:1.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp20-1/

Environmental audit of a textile effluent treatment plant in Gazipur, Bangladesh

Environmental audit of a textile effluent treatment plant in Gazipur, Bangladesh

Sk. Md. Imdadul Islam*, Mohammad Iqbal Hossain, Muhammad Raihan

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Existing condition of an ETP was observed.
  • Operational process of the ETP was evaluated.
  • Efficiency of BOD and COD removal was determined.
  • A simple but strong methodology was developed for evaluating the performance of the ETP.
  • Some techniques were suggested to augment the efficiency of the ETP.

ABSTRACT

Environmental auditing is a necessary tool for determining the impact on environment for industries or any productive sectors. Environmental auditing therefore provides a ‘snap-shot’ of looking, i.e. what is happening at that point in a certain time. The performance of the plant actually comes from the efficiency of individual units of an effluent treatment plant (ETP) and the final effluent quality. In this study, an ETP of a textile industry in Gazipur, Bangladesh was analyzed. Bangladesh is a globally renowned garment manufacturing center for its durability, quality and beauty. The textiles and garment industry contributes a lion part to the GDP. It is an initial attempt in Bangladesh to initiate the practice of environmental audit. The samples were collected from the central unit of ETP and were analyzed for the fundamental parameters, e.g. DO, BOD, COD, TSS, pH, color and turbidity. The outcomes were used to identify problems with the treatment units and to suggest modifications. Finally, a simple but strong methodology was developed for evaluating the performance of the different treatment units and the ETP as a whole. It could be implemented by ETP director so that the effluent meets the national standards and conforms to the requirements of global buyers. The audit was performed in three steps and the final outcome was prepared.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Islam SMI, Hossain MI, Raihan M. Environmental audit of a textile effluent treatment plant in Gazipur, Bangladesh. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;19:2-8.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp19-2/

Renewable energy and wastewater treatment: Environmental and economical benefits

Renewable energy and wastewater treatment: Environmental and economical benefits

Thamer Ahmad Mohammad

The main purpose of wastewater treatment plants is to control the environmental pollution particularly in natural water bodies. From energy point of view, wastewater treatment plants have high potentials for heat generation beyond common digester gas combustion. Anaerobic digestion is a popular and energy-efficient process in which microorganisms convert organic matter into biogas in the absence of oxygen. This naturally-occurring by-product can be used as a source of renewable energy, creating an incredible opportunity to convert waste into energy. The produced energy is depending on the quantity of wastewater being treated and the strength of that wastewater. Biogas can be used in boilers to produce heat, burned in cogeneration engines to produce both electricity and heat, or, in some cases, sold back to the local grid for utility credits. Biogas contains methane, a highly-flammable fuel with incredible money-saving potential….

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Mohammad TA. Renewable energy and wastewater treatment: Environmental and economical benefits. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;19:1.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp19-1/

Towards sustainable policy in water-energy nexus in Saudi Arabia: Solar energy technology for seawater and brackish water desalination

Towards sustainable policy in water-energy nexus in Saudi Arabia: Solar energy technology for seawater and brackish water desalination

El Fadil Adam

HIGHLIGHTS

  • An assessment of various water energy nexus interconnections is discussed.
  • Energy requirements for different the desalination technologies are presented.
  • Environmental impacts of seawater desalination are highlighted.
  • Benefits of employing solar energy in desalination are explained.
  • Sustainable policy scenarios to resolve water and energy challenges are proposed.

ABSTRACT

Water and energy resources are deeply linked in intimate ways, interlaced, and interconnected. Historically they were treated independently and there have been inadequate attention to the challenges. All processes of water extraction, treatment, distribution, and disposal consume energy, while oil extraction, refining and electricity production require water. This interdependency is predominantly indicated as water-energy nexus. The lack of energy availability and freshwater supply are considered the major challenges facing the 21st century. Accordingly, seeking for alternative freshwater and energy resources is considered a top policy priority. Desalination became viable solution to address water scarcity; however it is an energy intensive process. The objectives of the present work are to study the integration of solar energy into desalination to assist in addressing energy concerns and the global environmental problems resulted from the use of fossil fuels. Also among the aims of the study is to propose sustainable policy scenarios to mitigate water and energy use. The study reviews the latest developments in desalination technologies. It discusses challenges, opportunities, environmental impacts, and policy trends relevant to different production processes. The research results advance the concept of water-energy nexus by examining various water-energy interconnections, highlights potential areas of stress, and policy actions to be taken to bring mutual benefits across water and energy sectors. Towards the end, the study concludes the promising opportunities in terms of global carbon emission mitigation and sets recommendations for policy makers. Also the study explores opportunities and proposes sustainable methods that could have an impact on the future water-energy policy. The study recommends considering explicitly the relationship between decision making, policy institutions, and the water energy nexus to ensure adequate water and energy sustainability.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Adam E. Towards sustainable policy in water-energy nexus in Saudi Arabia: Solar energy technology for seawater and brackish water desalination. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;18:10-23.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp18-3/

Nanofiltration membrane technology and its applications in surface water treatment: A review

Nanofiltration membrane technology and its applications in surface water treatment: A review

E.H.H. Al-Qadami1,*, A. Ahsan2,3, Z. Mustaffa1, A.S. Abdurrasheed1, K.W. Yusof1, S.M.H. Shah1

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Nanofiltration (NF) membrane and its applications in water softening and purification has been reviewed.
  • NF membrane characteristics, separation mechanism, and fouling issues have been discussed.
  • NF membrane with small pores required more energy.
  • Further improvement is required to solve the fouling issue which is considered as a common problem.
  • Water treatment using NF can be considered as one of the promising alternatives for traditional treatment plants.

ABSTRACT

Surface water is the main source of potable water production around the globe. However, this source is projected to different pollutants from domestic, industries and farms. Therefore, producing drinking water with high-quality standards and minimizing the amount of organic and inorganic pollutants is required. Different technologies have been used and tested for drinking water production. Nanofiltration (NF) membrane is one of these technologies which can produce potable water with high-quality standards. However, the fouling issue remained the major problem facing membrane technology. Further, a membrane with small pores required more energy, but this issue can be solved using renewable sources of energy. In this paper, a brief review on NF membrane technology is presented in different ways including, NF membrane characteristics, separation and fouling mechanisms, and applications of NF in surface water treatment. It was observed that more improvement is needed to solve the fouling issue which is considered as a common problem in all membrane types. Additionally, the NF process was noted to be a promising method for surface water treatment and softening purposes.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Al-Qadami EHH, Ahsan A, Mustaffa Z, Abdurrasheed AS, Yusof KW, Shah SMH. Nanofiltration membrane technology and its applications in surface water treatment: A review. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;18:3-9.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp18-2/

Isn’t it the time for citizens to share the responsibility with water utilities?

Isn’t it the time for citizens to share the responsibility with water utilities?

Husnain Haider

With extremely high water scarcity situation, conservation of limited resources is an uphill task for the water utilities, particularly in Gulf region and other developing countries. Although, the problems related to both the water quality and quantity are multifaceted, water utilities in these countries are striving to provide safe and ample water to their consumers at much lower rates as compared to water prices in developed world. The first challenge is poor quality of both the surface and ground water sources in developing world. Most of the valuable surface water sources have been affected by the discharge of pint (domestic and industrial wastewater) and non-point sources (urban and rural runoff) of pollution. However, the ground water is unprotected in all cases. Unconfined aquifers have been impacted by anthropogenic activities and the confined aquifers violate drinking water quality standards due to presence of high levels of minerals and metals in natural soils and geological formations…

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Haider H. Isn’t it the time for citizens to share the responsibility with water utilities? Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;18:1-2.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp18-1/

Effect of water logging in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh

Effect of water logging in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh

M.A.H. Gazi1, S.M. Moniruzzaman1,*, M.S. Islam2

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Siltation of the Kobadak River is the main cause of water logging.
  • Chloride concentration of water is found below 140 mg/l.
  • Nitrogen content of the soil is less than the optimum limit.
  • Calcium, potassium, and magnesium concentrations of the soil exceed the optimum limit.
  • Farmers are changing their occupation.

ABSTRACT

In the recent years, the southwest coastal area of Bangladesh has been seriously affected due to the water logging. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of water logging with view of the structural and economical losses, and with a view of the salinity and acidic related variables in soil solution associated to plant nutrients. To fulfill the objectives of the study, both primary and secondary data are collected from the study area. Household survey through questionnaire is performed to collect the required information from the affected people. Frequently field visits, key informant interviews, soil and water sample testing are also performed. According to the opinion of 77% respondent among the total 230 respondents, the siltation of the Kobadak River is the main cause of water logging. Farmers are changing their occupation, and only 16% of people are taking farming as the main occupation and about 60% of people living with day-labour occupation. According to respondents view on the land use of the study area, on an average 13% is for residential, 36% is for agricultural, 40% is lowland, and 12% is for others, e.g. river, canal, pond and lake, etc. Chloride concentration is found as below 140 mg/l from all the water samples of the study area. The minimum value of sodium adsorption ratio is found as 0.54 meq/l and the maximum value is found as 8.7 meq/l. Nitrogen content is less than the optimum limit and potassium content is greater than the optimum limit of the soil sample. Phosphorus content in Kumira and Gopalpur unions is within the limit but in Tala and Tenulia unions exceeds the optimum limit. In addition, calcium and magnesium contents of the soil sample exceed the optimum limit at all the locations.

© 2019 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Gazi MAH, Moniruzzaman SM, Islam MS. Effect of water logging in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2019;17:3-9.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp17-2/

A concise review on the recent progresses about solar stills

A concise review on the recent progresses about solar stills

S. Rashidi, J.A. Esfahani

Solar stills are simple and inexpensive devices, which use solar radiation to purify water. They work eco-friendly and are suitable for the usage in arid remotes area with dispersed population. These futures have made these devices popular in most parts of the world. The overall efficiency and the rate of production in solar stills are low and therefore, some techniques are used to overhaul the performance of these devices. In this communication, recent progresses about the solar stills are briefly reviewed. Rashidi et al. [1] evaluated the potentials of the porous material for enhancing the evaporation rate and productivity in the solar stills. They used this material inside the basin of the solar still. They used the sponge layer as the porous material, which has low heat capacity. This means that most of the solar radiation can be used to increase the water temperature instead of sponge temperature. Moreover, the sponge as a porous material provides a good effective surface for evaporating the water and absorbing the solar radiation…

© 2019 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Rashidi S, Esfahani JA. A concise review on the recent progresses about solar stills. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2019;17:1-2.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp17-1/

A new approach in the field of solar desalination: Plate in tube technique

A new approach in the field of solar desalination: Plate in tube technique

M.A. Anwar1,*, Q.H. Bari2, M.I. Matin1, T. Tarannum1

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Plate in tube solar still is more efficient than conventional double slope basin type still.
  • Steel tray along with cement mortar plate provides a vast area for evaporation.
  • It can be fabricated easily from locally available materials.
  • It is comparatively more cost effective than other available techniques.
  • Desalinated water obtained from the plate in tube technique is suitable for drinking.

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to introduce a completely new technique in the field of solar desalination, which has been dubbed “Plate in Tube” technique. Obtaining fresh water is a major challenge nowadays, because fresh water resources are being depleted and often becoming salinized. Although ample amount of water exists in the oceans, its utilization is largely inhibited due to its extreme salinity. Under these circumstances, desalination using solar energy can be used to convert brackish and ocean water to pure drinking water through installation of an economical device. In “Plate in Tube” technique, a cement mortar plate covered with composite cloth placed in a steel tray is used to increase the evaporation area. The cloth along with the mortar plate additionally serves the function of absorption media for water and heat. The study shows that the fresh water production increased by nearly 100% compared to conventional methods, because of large temperature difference between the tube and the mortar plate. The system is very cost effective and requires little expertise to construct. Hence, it is very effective to meet the water demand of coastal, arid, remote and rural people.

© 2019 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Anwar MA, Bari QH, Matin MI, Tarannum T. A new approach in the field of solar desalination: Plate in tube technique. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2019;16:3-11.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp16-2/