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Environmental audit of a textile effluent treatment plant in Gazipur, Bangladesh

Environmental audit of a textile effluent treatment plant in Gazipur, Bangladesh

Sk. Md. Imdadul Islam*, Mohammad Iqbal Hossain, Muhammad Raihan

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Existing condition of an ETP was observed.
  • Operational process of the ETP was evaluated.
  • Efficiency of BOD and COD removal was determined.
  • A simple but strong methodology was developed for evaluating the performance of the ETP.
  • Some techniques were suggested to augment the efficiency of the ETP.

ABSTRACT

Environmental auditing is a necessary tool for determining the impact on environment for industries or any productive sectors. Environmental auditing therefore provides a ‘snap-shot’ of looking, i.e. what is happening at that point in a certain time. The performance of the plant actually comes from the efficiency of individual units of an effluent treatment plant (ETP) and the final effluent quality. In this study, an ETP of a textile industry in Gazipur, Bangladesh was analyzed. Bangladesh is a globally renowned garment manufacturing center for its durability, quality and beauty. The textiles and garment industry contributes a lion part to the GDP. It is an initial attempt in Bangladesh to initiate the practice of environmental audit. The samples were collected from the central unit of ETP and were analyzed for the fundamental parameters, e.g. DO, BOD, COD, TSS, pH, color and turbidity. The outcomes were used to identify problems with the treatment units and to suggest modifications. Finally, a simple but strong methodology was developed for evaluating the performance of the different treatment units and the ETP as a whole. It could be implemented by ETP director so that the effluent meets the national standards and conforms to the requirements of global buyers. The audit was performed in three steps and the final outcome was prepared.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Islam SMI, Hossain MI, Raihan M. Environmental audit of a textile effluent treatment plant in Gazipur, Bangladesh. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;19:2-8.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp19-2/

Renewable energy and wastewater treatment: Environmental and economical benefits

Renewable energy and wastewater treatment: Environmental and economical benefits

Thamer Ahmad Mohammad

The main purpose of wastewater treatment plants is to control the environmental pollution particularly in natural water bodies. From energy point of view, wastewater treatment plants have high potentials for heat generation beyond common digester gas combustion. Anaerobic digestion is a popular and energy-efficient process in which microorganisms convert organic matter into biogas in the absence of oxygen. This naturally-occurring by-product can be used as a source of renewable energy, creating an incredible opportunity to convert waste into energy. The produced energy is depending on the quantity of wastewater being treated and the strength of that wastewater. Biogas can be used in boilers to produce heat, burned in cogeneration engines to produce both electricity and heat, or, in some cases, sold back to the local grid for utility credits. Biogas contains methane, a highly-flammable fuel with incredible money-saving potential….

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Mohammad TA. Renewable energy and wastewater treatment: Environmental and economical benefits. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;19:1.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp19-1/

Towards sustainable policy in water-energy nexus in Saudi Arabia: Solar energy technology for seawater and brackish water desalination

Towards sustainable policy in water-energy nexus in Saudi Arabia: Solar energy technology for seawater and brackish water desalination

El Fadil Adam

HIGHLIGHTS

  • An assessment of various water energy nexus interconnections is discussed.
  • Energy requirements for different the desalination technologies are presented.
  • Environmental impacts of seawater desalination are highlighted.
  • Benefits of employing solar energy in desalination are explained.
  • Sustainable policy scenarios to resolve water and energy challenges are proposed.

ABSTRACT

Water and energy resources are deeply linked in intimate ways, interlaced, and interconnected. Historically they were treated independently and there have been inadequate attention to the challenges. All processes of water extraction, treatment, distribution, and disposal consume energy, while oil extraction, refining and electricity production require water. This interdependency is predominantly indicated as water-energy nexus. The lack of energy availability and freshwater supply are considered the major challenges facing the 21st century. Accordingly, seeking for alternative freshwater and energy resources is considered a top policy priority. Desalination became viable solution to address water scarcity; however it is an energy intensive process. The objectives of the present work are to study the integration of solar energy into desalination to assist in addressing energy concerns and the global environmental problems resulted from the use of fossil fuels. Also among the aims of the study is to propose sustainable policy scenarios to mitigate water and energy use. The study reviews the latest developments in desalination technologies. It discusses challenges, opportunities, environmental impacts, and policy trends relevant to different production processes. The research results advance the concept of water-energy nexus by examining various water-energy interconnections, highlights potential areas of stress, and policy actions to be taken to bring mutual benefits across water and energy sectors. Towards the end, the study concludes the promising opportunities in terms of global carbon emission mitigation and sets recommendations for policy makers. Also the study explores opportunities and proposes sustainable methods that could have an impact on the future water-energy policy. The study recommends considering explicitly the relationship between decision making, policy institutions, and the water energy nexus to ensure adequate water and energy sustainability.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Adam E. Towards sustainable policy in water-energy nexus in Saudi Arabia: Solar energy technology for seawater and brackish water desalination. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;18:10-23.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp18-3/

Nanofiltration membrane technology and its applications in surface water treatment: A review

Nanofiltration membrane technology and its applications in surface water treatment: A review

E.H.H. Al-Qadami1,*, A. Ahsan2,3, Z. Mustaffa1, A.S. Abdurrasheed1, K.W. Yusof1, S.M.H. Shah1

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Nanofiltration (NF) membrane and its applications in water softening and purification has been reviewed.
  • NF membrane characteristics, separation mechanism, and fouling issues have been discussed.
  • NF membrane with small pores required more energy.
  • Further improvement is required to solve the fouling issue which is considered as a common problem.
  • Water treatment using NF can be considered as one of the promising alternatives for traditional treatment plants.

ABSTRACT

Surface water is the main source of potable water production around the globe. However, this source is projected to different pollutants from domestic, industries and farms. Therefore, producing drinking water with high-quality standards and minimizing the amount of organic and inorganic pollutants is required. Different technologies have been used and tested for drinking water production. Nanofiltration (NF) membrane is one of these technologies which can produce potable water with high-quality standards. However, the fouling issue remained the major problem facing membrane technology. Further, a membrane with small pores required more energy, but this issue can be solved using renewable sources of energy. In this paper, a brief review on NF membrane technology is presented in different ways including, NF membrane characteristics, separation and fouling mechanisms, and applications of NF in surface water treatment. It was observed that more improvement is needed to solve the fouling issue which is considered as a common problem in all membrane types. Additionally, the NF process was noted to be a promising method for surface water treatment and softening purposes.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Al-Qadami EHH, Ahsan A, Mustaffa Z, Abdurrasheed AS, Yusof KW, Shah SMH. Nanofiltration membrane technology and its applications in surface water treatment: A review. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;18:3-9.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp18-2/

Isn’t it the time for citizens to share the responsibility with water utilities?

Isn’t it the time for citizens to share the responsibility with water utilities?

Husnain Haider

With extremely high water scarcity situation, conservation of limited resources is an uphill task for the water utilities, particularly in Gulf region and other developing countries. Although, the problems related to both the water quality and quantity are multifaceted, water utilities in these countries are striving to provide safe and ample water to their consumers at much lower rates as compared to water prices in developed world. The first challenge is poor quality of both the surface and ground water sources in developing world. Most of the valuable surface water sources have been affected by the discharge of pint (domestic and industrial wastewater) and non-point sources (urban and rural runoff) of pollution. However, the ground water is unprotected in all cases. Unconfined aquifers have been impacted by anthropogenic activities and the confined aquifers violate drinking water quality standards due to presence of high levels of minerals and metals in natural soils and geological formations…

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Haider H. Isn’t it the time for citizens to share the responsibility with water utilities? Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;18:1-2.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp18-1/

Effect of water logging in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh

Effect of water logging in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh

M.A.H. Gazi1, S.M. Moniruzzaman1,*, M.S. Islam2

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Siltation of the Kobadak River is the main cause of water logging.
  • Chloride concentration of water is found below 140 mg/l.
  • Nitrogen content of the soil is less than the optimum limit.
  • Calcium, potassium, and magnesium concentrations of the soil exceed the optimum limit.
  • Farmers are changing their occupation.

ABSTRACT

In the recent years, the southwest coastal area of Bangladesh has been seriously affected due to the water logging. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of water logging with view of the structural and economical losses, and with a view of the salinity and acidic related variables in soil solution associated to plant nutrients. To fulfill the objectives of the study, both primary and secondary data are collected from the study area. Household survey through questionnaire is performed to collect the required information from the affected people. Frequently field visits, key informant interviews, soil and water sample testing are also performed. According to the opinion of 77% respondent among the total 230 respondents, the siltation of the Kobadak River is the main cause of water logging. Farmers are changing their occupation, and only 16% of people are taking farming as the main occupation and about 60% of people living with day-labour occupation. According to respondents view on the land use of the study area, on an average 13% is for residential, 36% is for agricultural, 40% is lowland, and 12% is for others, e.g. river, canal, pond and lake, etc. Chloride concentration is found as below 140 mg/l from all the water samples of the study area. The minimum value of sodium adsorption ratio is found as 0.54 meq/l and the maximum value is found as 8.7 meq/l. Nitrogen content is less than the optimum limit and potassium content is greater than the optimum limit of the soil sample. Phosphorus content in Kumira and Gopalpur unions is within the limit but in Tala and Tenulia unions exceeds the optimum limit. In addition, calcium and magnesium contents of the soil sample exceed the optimum limit at all the locations.

© 2019 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Gazi MAH, Moniruzzaman SM, Islam MS. Effect of water logging in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2019;17:3-9.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp17-2/

A concise review on the recent progresses about solar stills

A concise review on the recent progresses about solar stills

S. Rashidi, J.A. Esfahani

Solar stills are simple and inexpensive devices, which use solar radiation to purify water. They work eco-friendly and are suitable for the usage in arid remotes area with dispersed population. These futures have made these devices popular in most parts of the world. The overall efficiency and the rate of production in solar stills are low and therefore, some techniques are used to overhaul the performance of these devices. In this communication, recent progresses about the solar stills are briefly reviewed. Rashidi et al. [1] evaluated the potentials of the porous material for enhancing the evaporation rate and productivity in the solar stills. They used this material inside the basin of the solar still. They used the sponge layer as the porous material, which has low heat capacity. This means that most of the solar radiation can be used to increase the water temperature instead of sponge temperature. Moreover, the sponge as a porous material provides a good effective surface for evaporating the water and absorbing the solar radiation…

© 2019 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Rashidi S, Esfahani JA. A concise review on the recent progresses about solar stills. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2019;17:1-2.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp17-1/