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Towards sustainable policy in water-energy nexus in Saudi Arabia: Solar energy technology for seawater and brackish water desalination

Towards sustainable policy in water-energy nexus in Saudi Arabia: Solar energy technology for seawater and brackish water desalination

El Fadil Adam

HIGHLIGHTS

  • An assessment of various water energy nexus interconnections is discussed.
  • Energy requirements for different the desalination technologies are presented.
  • Environmental impacts of seawater desalination are highlighted.
  • Benefits of employing solar energy in desalination are explained.
  • Sustainable policy scenarios to resolve water and energy challenges are proposed.

ABSTRACT

Water and energy resources are deeply linked in intimate ways, interlaced, and interconnected. Historically they were treated independently and there have been inadequate attention to the challenges. All processes of water extraction, treatment, distribution, and disposal consume energy, while oil extraction, refining and electricity production require water. This interdependency is predominantly indicated as water-energy nexus. The lack of energy availability and freshwater supply are considered the major challenges facing the 21st century. Accordingly, seeking for alternative freshwater and energy resources is considered a top policy priority. Desalination became viable solution to address water scarcity; however it is an energy intensive process. The objectives of the present work are to study the integration of solar energy into desalination to assist in addressing energy concerns and the global environmental problems resulted from the use of fossil fuels. Also among the aims of the study is to propose sustainable policy scenarios to mitigate water and energy use. The study reviews the latest developments in desalination technologies. It discusses challenges, opportunities, environmental impacts, and policy trends relevant to different production processes. The research results advance the concept of water-energy nexus by examining various water-energy interconnections, highlights potential areas of stress, and policy actions to be taken to bring mutual benefits across water and energy sectors. Towards the end, the study concludes the promising opportunities in terms of global carbon emission mitigation and sets recommendations for policy makers. Also the study explores opportunities and proposes sustainable methods that could have an impact on the future water-energy policy. The study recommends considering explicitly the relationship between decision making, policy institutions, and the water energy nexus to ensure adequate water and energy sustainability.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Adam E. Towards sustainable policy in water-energy nexus in Saudi Arabia: Solar energy technology for seawater and brackish water desalination. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;18:10-23.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp18-3/

Nanofiltration membrane technology and its applications in surface water treatment: A review

Nanofiltration membrane technology and its applications in surface water treatment: A review

E.H.H. Al-Qadami1,*, A. Ahsan2,3, Z. Mustaffa1, A.S. Abdurrasheed1, K.W. Yusof1, S.M.H. Shah1

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Nanofiltration (NF) membrane and its applications in water softening and purification has been reviewed.
  • NF membrane characteristics, separation mechanism, and fouling issues have been discussed.
  • NF membrane with small pores required more energy.
  • Further improvement is required to solve the fouling issue which is considered as a common problem.
  • Water treatment using NF can be considered as one of the promising alternatives for traditional treatment plants.

ABSTRACT

Surface water is the main source of potable water production around the globe. However, this source is projected to different pollutants from domestic, industries and farms. Therefore, producing drinking water with high-quality standards and minimizing the amount of organic and inorganic pollutants is required. Different technologies have been used and tested for drinking water production. Nanofiltration (NF) membrane is one of these technologies which can produce potable water with high-quality standards. However, the fouling issue remained the major problem facing membrane technology. Further, a membrane with small pores required more energy, but this issue can be solved using renewable sources of energy. In this paper, a brief review on NF membrane technology is presented in different ways including, NF membrane characteristics, separation and fouling mechanisms, and applications of NF in surface water treatment. It was observed that more improvement is needed to solve the fouling issue which is considered as a common problem in all membrane types. Additionally, the NF process was noted to be a promising method for surface water treatment and softening purposes.

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Al-Qadami EHH, Ahsan A, Mustaffa Z, Abdurrasheed AS, Yusof KW, Shah SMH. Nanofiltration membrane technology and its applications in surface water treatment: A review. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;18:3-9.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp18-2/

Isn’t it the time for citizens to share the responsibility with water utilities?

Isn’t it the time for citizens to share the responsibility with water utilities?

Husnain Haider

With extremely high water scarcity situation, conservation of limited resources is an uphill task for the water utilities, particularly in Gulf region and other developing countries. Although, the problems related to both the water quality and quantity are multifaceted, water utilities in these countries are striving to provide safe and ample water to their consumers at much lower rates as compared to water prices in developed world. The first challenge is poor quality of both the surface and ground water sources in developing world. Most of the valuable surface water sources have been affected by the discharge of pint (domestic and industrial wastewater) and non-point sources (urban and rural runoff) of pollution. However, the ground water is unprotected in all cases. Unconfined aquifers have been impacted by anthropogenic activities and the confined aquifers violate drinking water quality standards due to presence of high levels of minerals and metals in natural soils and geological formations…

© 2020 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Haider H. Isn’t it the time for citizens to share the responsibility with water utilities? Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2020;18:1-2.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp18-1/