Archives

Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from synthetic wastewater through crystallization process

Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from synthetic wastewater through crystallization process

Mohamad Amran Mohd Salleh1,*, Nur Masturah Abdul Razak1, Md. Mukhlesur Rahman2, Suraya Abdul Rashid1

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Nitrogen and phosphorus are the key elements for eutrophication.
  • Crystallization is an excellent way of nutrient recovery from wastewater.
  • Struvite and its derivatives (MgNH2PO3.7H2O) can be used as a fertilizer.
  • Struvite crystallization simultaneously recovers valuable products from wastewater.
  • This study can help to reduce the risk of water pollution.

ABSTRACT

High amount of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in wastewater is hazardous to aquatic environment as it triggers the eutrophication. Hence, the removal of N and P from wastewater is an important issue to save the water environment. The aim of this study was to recover the N and P from synthetic wastewater through crystallization process. Recovery of ammonium and phosphate through crystallization at different operational conditions were observed. Parameters studied were pH, reaction time and stirrer speed. Removal efficiency of NH4+ and PO43- were related to the level of pH. The highest removal of NH4+ and PO43- (85% and 47%, respectively) were observed at pH 9.5 with the 1:1:1 molar ratio of PO4:Mg:NH4. Moreover, stirring speed showed minor effects on the crystal production. Nonetheless, the crystal production was the same at different time periods. The morphology of the crystal was studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and it was proved that the precipitated crystals were derivatives of struvite, called magnesium amide phosphate hydrate (MgNH2PO3.7H2O). Hence, the formation of struvite crystal derivatives from wastewater might be an effective way to remove and recover ammonium and phosphate from wastewater and thus, able to reduce water and environmental pollution. Therefore, valuable crystal fertilizers can be recovered from wastewaters of livestock farms, municipal sewage or industries. It also can minimize nutrient loading and improve water quality significantly.

© 2016 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Salleh MAM, Razak NMA, Rahman MM, Rashid SA. Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from synthetic wastewater through crystallization process. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2016;3:11-16.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp3-3/

Characteristics and economic value of the rejected brine at Al-Khobar desalination plant in KSA

Characteristics and economic value of the rejected brine at Al-Khobar desalination plant in KSA

Alrowaished Abdulsalam1,*, Azni Idris1, Amimul Ahsan2, Thamer A. Mohamed2

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Characteristics of seawater and brine from Al-khobar desalination plant were studied.
  • Many minerals (e.g. SO42- & K+) can be recovered directly from the rejected brine.
  • The economic value of the rejected brine was studied.
  • This study can help the policy makers to install plants for brine processing.

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the characteristics of seawater and rejected brine, and the economic value of the rejected brine at Al-Khobar desalination plant, KSA. The rejected brine may be discharged to sea/ocean contains of different salts and dissolved minerals in high concentrations, which carry considerable economic value in relevant industries. It is found that the rejected brine contains huge amount of SO42-, Cl, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Fe2- and Cu2+, which have high economic value. Therefore, these minerals can be recovered directly from the rejected brine. This study estimated the quantities of these minerals and the revenue income according to their current market prices. Moreover, this study may help the policy/decision makers to assess the economic value of the brine to establish new industries for brine processing. Seawater and brine samples collected from the Al-Khobar plant. Various physical and chemical properties were observed in order to find economic value of minerals.

© 2016 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Abdulsalam A, Idris A, Ahsan A, Mohamed TA. Characteristics and economic value of the rejected brine at Al-Khobar desalination plant in KSA. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2016;3:3-10.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp3-2/

Water scarcity, potential alternative sources and treatment feasibility

Water scarcity, potential alternative sources and treatment feasibility

MA Imteaz

With ever-increasing population and impacts of climate change, water supply systems in many cities of the world are under tremendous stress. Water authorities in many major cities around the world are struggling to maintain required water demand. Available potable water supply is crucial in some mega cities within developing and poor countries. Developed nations with ample resources and wealth are managing their demands to a satisfactory level, however still facing challenge to tackle demands. As such, water authorities are adopting several measures including demand management and identifying alternative water sources such as stormwater harvesting, greywater and wastewater reuse and desalination. During a decade long (2003~2012) drought in Australia, government spent 18 billion dollars to construct several desalination plants, most of those are now sitting idle as the climate has reversed with ample rains, which sufficiently contributing to the water supply reservoirs to fulfill the demands…

© 2016 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Imteaz MA. Water scarcity, potential alternative sources and treatment feasibility. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2016;3:1-2.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp3-1/

Journal of Desalination and Water Purification, Volume 3, Issue June 2016, Pages 1-16, Articles 1-3 (30 June 2016)

Journal of Desalination and Water Purification

Volume 3, Issue June 2016, Pages 1-16, Articles 1-3 (30 June 2016)

Editorial Board                                                     p. i

Acknowledgement to Reviewers                    p. i

Journal Information                                           p. ii

Contents                                                                p. iii

Articles                                                                   pp. 1-16

Imteaz MA.
Water scarcity, potential alternative sources and treatment feasibility
Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2016;3:1-2.

Abdulsalam A, Idris A, Ahsan A, Mohamed TA.
Characteristics and economic value of the rejected brine at Al-Khobar desalination plant in KSA
Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2016;3:3-10.

Salleh MAM, Razak NMA, Rahman MM, Rashid SA.
Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from synthetic wastewater through crystallization process 
Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2016;3:11-16.

© 2016 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

Volume 1, Issue November 2015
Volume 2, Issue March 2016

Articles JDWP

JDWP

Geospatial analysis of lake water quality parameters in Selangor, Malaysia using GIS

Geospatial analysis of lake water quality parameters in Selangor, Malaysia using GIS

A. Adeleke1, A. Ahsan2,*, N. N. Nik Daud1, A. Abdul Latiff1, D. Denkenberger3, D. Zawawi1, F. Mat Daud1

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Eight water quality parameters of Serumpun lake were analyzed.
  • The lake was classified as polluted based on WQI classification.
  • The output of the surface water interpolation of eight parameters was illustrated in GIS based maps.
  • Geospatial analysis using IDW spatial tool evaluated the contribution of each parameter.

ABSTRACT

Geospatial analysis of eight water quality parameters was applied for the assessment of the water quality of Serumpun lake located in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Selangor. The Interim Water Quality Standard Malaysia (INWQS), Malaysian water quality index (WQI) and the Canadian water quality standards were applied for classification of the lake water. The spatial distribution of the water quality parameters was achieved by interpolation using inverse distance weighting (IDW) method. The result of the investigation indicated that the lake was polluted according to the Malaysian WQI having a value of 22.4. The three sub-index parameters were also classified as polluted according to the Department of Environment (DOE), Malaysia. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) was used for further classification of the lake. The result of CCME-WQI showed that the lake was polluted with a value of 25.91.

© 2016 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Adeleke A, Ahsan A, Daud NNN, Latiff AA, Denkenberger D, Zawawi D, Daud FM. Geospatial analysis of lake water quality parameters in Selangor, Malaysia using GIS. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2016;2(1):14-21.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp2-1-4/

Lead tolerance and accumulation potentiality of jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) at early growing stage

Lead tolerance and accumulation potentiality of jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) at early growing stage

Md. Nizam Uddin1, Md. Wahid-Uz-Zaman2, Md. Mokhlesur Rahman2, Md. Shariful Islam1,*, Md. Shahidul Islam3

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Pb tolerance and accumulation by fibrous plants were conducted at early growing stage.
  • Jute, kenaf and mesta seedlings were survived up to 160 mg Pb L1 in growing media.
  • Bioaccumulation factor (BCF) indicated all varieties were Pb accumulator.
  • Translocation factor (TF) showed slowly translocation of Pb from root to shoot.
  • Maximum 346 and 3952 mg Pb kg-1 were recorded in shoot and root, respectively.

ABSTRACT

Lead (Pb) is one of the environmentally hazardous toxic heavy metals. Some plants have the ability to tolerate and absorb this toxic metal. The current study was conducted to evaluate Pb tolerance and absorption capacity of jute (Corchorus capsularis L. var. BJC-7370 and CVE-3), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. var. HC-95 and HC-3) and mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. var. Samu-93). Seedlings of these varieties were grown in hydroponic nutrient solution having four levels of Pb, viz 0, 80, 120 and 160 mg L-1 with four replications. Results showed that the seedlings of jute, kenaf and mesta were highly potential to tolerate Pb toxicity. Lead had no significant effects on the survibility of jute, kenaf and mesta seedlings. All the seedlings were normally survived up to 160 mg L-1 Pb contaminated hydroponic solution. Root and shoot length and dry biomass were decreased with the increasing levels of Pb. Bio-concentration factor values indicated that all the varieties were Pb accumulator. Translocation factor indicated that Pb is slowly translocated from root to shoot in all varieties and the rate of translocation is increased with the increasing concentration of Pb. Accumulations of Pb in root were higher than shoot. Highest Pb contents in shoot (345.82 mg Pb kg-1) and root (3951.50 mg Pb kg-1) were detected from mesta (var. Samu-93) than other varieties. On the other hand, the maximum (8.75 mg Pb pot-1) Pb absorption was calculated from the variety of jute CVE-3. At initial stage of growing, Pb absorption potentiality of the varieties in the order of jute CVE-3 > jute BJC-7370 > kenaf HC-3 > kenaf HC-95 > mesta Samu-93. The findings of this study can be used in phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated environment.

© 2016 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Uddin MN, Wahid-Uz-Zaman M, Rahman MM, Islam MS, Islam MS. Lead tolerance and accumulation potentiality of jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) at early growing stage. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2016;2(1):5-13.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp2-1-3/

A brief review on recent attempts to improve the performance of solar stills

A brief review on recent attempts to improve the performance of solar stills

J.A. Esfahani

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Thermoelectric cooling leads to increase in yield of solar still (SS).
  • The evaporative and convective heat transfer coefficients are two key parameters to design a SS.
  • The yield is affected by the depth of water in SS.
  • There is a proportional relationship between the yield and solar radiation.
  • For a fixed length of SS, the yield increases with decrease of specific height.

ABSTRACT

Drinking water scarcity is a critical problem around the world in the 21st century. Population expansion, global climate change, urbanization, vegetation destruction and deforestation are causes for this crisis. Beside this, it is worth mentioning that only 0.014% of water in earth can be applied directly for the human consumption. This storage reveals the impact of desalination process and similar industrial. All desalination techniques require fossil fuel or electrical energy. A simple type of desalination device is solar still with many advantages such as simplicity, endless amounts of energy (free of charge), ability to supply fresh water to remote areas where no fresh water is available, cost savings, reduced consumption of fossil fuels and many other benefits. These advantages make this device attractive. Researchers try to improve the performance of this device by various techniques. This paper is a brief review on recent attempts to improve the performance of solar stills.

© 2016 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Esfahani, JA. A brief review on recent attempts to improve the performance of solar stills. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2016;2(1):2-4.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp2-1-2/

Scarcity of potable water becomes a challenge: Desalination is a viable option

Scarcity of potable water becomes a challenge: Desalination is a viable option

G.N. Tiwari

The basic needs for survival of human being on the planet are clean air, potable water and healthy food. The potable water is most second important need for human being. In present scenario, in addition to these basic needs, clean energy is also important. The influence of these basic needs on our life on the planet earth is immense. However, potable water on the planet earth including underground, surface and atmospheric moisture is less than 1%. Further, the potable water has been polluted badly in the past due to industrialization, fast growth in agriculture and population all over the world. So, the scarcity of potable water becomes a challenge today. To solve these problems, there are two methods of purifying the polluted underground and surface water, namely (i) conventional methods (reverse osmosis, flash distillation, membrane technology, etc.) which is very energy (fossil fuels) intensive, and (ii) solar distillation needs no energy/fossil fuels. In this scenario, passive and active solar distillation will play an important role to solve current problem of potable water.  Further, there is strong need to develop self-sustained active solar distillation systems if possible to meet the requirement of potable/distilled water. There is a lot of scope to carry out research in these areas…

© 2016 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Tiwari GN. Scarcity of potable water becomes a challenge: Desalination is a viable option. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2016;2(1):1.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp2-1-1/

Journal of Desalination and Water Purification, Volume 2, Issue March 2016, Pages 1-21, Articles 1-4 (30 March 2016)

Journal of Desalination and Water Purification

Volume 2, Issue March 2016, Pages 1-21, Articles 1-4 (30 March 2016)

Editorial Board                                                     p. i

Acknowledgement to Reviewers                    p. i

Journal Information                                           p. ii

Contents                                                                p. iii

Articles                                                                   pp. 1-21

Tiwari GN.
Scarcity of potable water becomes a challenge: Desalination is a viable option
Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2016;2(1):1.

Esfahani JA.
A brief review on recent attempts to improve the performance of solar stills
Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2016;2(1):2-4.

Uddin MN, Wahid-Uz-Zaman M, Rahman MM, Islam MS, Islam MS.
Lead tolerance and accumulation potentiality of jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) at early growing stage
Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2016;2(1):5-13.

Adeleke A, Ahsan A, Daud NNN, Latiff AA, Denkenberger D, Zawawi D, Daud FM.
Geospatial analysis of lake water quality parameters in Selangor, Malaysia using GIS
Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2016;2(1):14-21.

© 2016 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

Volume 1, Issue November 2015
Volume 3, Issue June 2016

Articles JDWP

JDWP