A review on cost effective municipal wastewater treatment options: Lessons for Sub-Saharan Africa

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A review on cost effective municipal wastewater treatment options: Lessons for Sub-Saharan Africa

A review on cost effective municipal wastewater treatment options: Lessons for Sub-Saharan Africa

Gideon Abagna Azunre

HIGHLIGHTS

  • There is a high quality of treated water with the limited construction cost of wetlands.
  • A hybrid system of lagoon and wetland can also be used.
  • The constructed wetlands will serve as the final purification site for effluent.

ABSTRACT

Wastewater discharge contaminates both surface water and groundwater. Sub-Saharan African countries mostly found in the lower and middle-income status face difficulties in treating wastewater. Several forms of treating municipal wastewater have been adopted in these countries, which received critiques in the conventional literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the major treatment technologies employed by Sub-Saharan African countries. This identified the major treatment technologies, such as stabilization ponds, constructed wetlands and aerated lagoons, that are mostly used in countries like Tanzania, Ghana and Kenya. The results show that there is a high quality of treated water with the limited construction cost of wetlands. As a result, the study ranked the constructed wetlands as the best. In order to address the critique of algae blooms and high-energy consumption of the existing technologies used in Sub-Saharan Africa, an emerging technology has been recommended. This technology makes use of algae to produce oxygen for bacteria to help in biochemical activity. This can help prevent the usage of aerators and blowers, which consume a lot of energy to introduce air. A hybrid system of lagoon and wetland can also be used to solve algae blooms. The constructed wetlands will serve as the final purification site for effluent from ponds before they discharge to surface water bodies.

© 2018 Ababil Publishers. All rights reserved.

To cite this article: Azunre GA. A review on cost effective municipal wastewater treatment options: Lessons for Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Desalination and Water Purification 2018;10:2-12.

To link this article: http://ababilpub.com/download/jdwp10-2/